Abstract

We have demonstrated that a thin planar coating with randomly distributed index gradients can create diffuse reflections in front of a planar conducting sheet. This scheme is verified by two-dimensional near-field scanning measurement, in which the randomly gradient index coating is implemented by periodic crossed-I-shaped array whose unit cell’s dimension varies spatially. Some qualitative principles of choosing the distribution mode of random index gradient are presented.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.
  4. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiron, A.

Guo, L.

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

Ma, Y. G.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

Ong, C. K.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Justice, J. J. Mock, L. Guo, A. Degiron, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tyc, T.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (2)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature Mater. 8, 568 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, Nature Mater. 8, 639 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. R. Smith, J. J. Mock, A. F. Starr, and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. E 71, 036609 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, Science 314, 977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, Science 323, 366 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, in 2008 International Workshop on Metamaterials (2008), pp. 248-250.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Planar PEC sheet with a thin randomly gradient index coating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Index gradients sets selected from (a) nonuniform distribution and (b) uniform distribution for the random coating. (c) The simulated backscattering patterns for both naked and coated PEC sheets.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CIS unit cell and the variation of its effective index versus its dimension s. (b) Sample of randomly gradient index coating. (c) Index gradients for each subregion of the random coating sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Experimental setup for the diffuse reflection measurement. (b) Measured backscattering patterns for both naked and coated metal sheets at 10.5 GHz . Measured scattered near fields at 10.5 GHz for (c) naked metal sheet and (d) coated metal sheet.

Equations (2)

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sin ( θ + φ ) sin ( θ ) = 2 t g ,
{ n = n c ( 2 f t ) if n > 2.85 n = n + c ( 2 f t ) if n < 1.15 } ,

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