Abstract

We demonstrate a compact optical phoroptor consisting of adjustable astigmatic and defocus lenses. The lenses are fluidically controlled and allow for an arbitrary refractive error to be corrected without mechanically moving lenses. Shack–Hartmann measurements were used to characterize the optical properties of the individual lenses. The lenses were then assembled into the phoropter and controlled with three separate fluid controls. The phoroptor was verified by correcting the vision of a model eye with an induced refraction error.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. S. Tsai, S. H. Cho, Y.-H. Lo, B. Vasko, and J. Vasko, Opt. Lett. 33, 291 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Marks, D. L. Mathine, G. Peyman, J. Schwiegerling, and N. Peyghambarian, Opt. Lett. 34, 515 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Marks, D. L. Mathine, G. Peyman, J. Schwiegerling, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 48, 3580 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2005 (2)

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, M.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Coane, P.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubasi, P.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gunasekaran, R. A.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-H.

Marks, R.

Mathine, D. L.

Peyghambarian, N.

Peyman, G.

Schwiegerling, J.

Singh, S.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, F. S.

Varahramyan, K.

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasko, B.

Vasko, J.

Zhang, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

D.-Y. Zhang, N. Justis, and Y.-H. Lo, Opt. Commun. 249, 175 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

R. A. Gunasekaran, M. Agarwal, S. Singh, P. Dubasi, P. Coane, and K. Varahramyan, Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 686 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Figure of (a) a conventional phoropter and (b) a monocle of the fluidic phoropter. The difference in physical size of the two instruments is readily apparent.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of an exploded view of the phoropter construction. The two astigmatic lenses are positioned at the bottom of the diagram, and the defocus lens is at the top.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Contour plot of the astigmatism and angle generated by the two astigmatic lenses for a given fluid volume is shown. Also present in the dashed lines is the amount of defocus produced by the astigmatic lenses. (b) Also shown is the amount of defocus optical power generated by the circular lens as a function of the fluidic volume.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic diagram of the model eye and phoropter is shown in the figure. Ophthalmic correction lenses are used to induce spherical and cylindrical refractive error in the model eye. The details of the system are discussed in the text.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Image results are taken with the model eye and the phoropter. The cat is pictured (a) with no power to the phoropter, (b) no power to the phoropter and an induced refraction error of 1D cylinder and 2D sphere at 120°, and (c) the refractive error is corrected by the phoropter. Other refractions demonstrated similar image quality.

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