Abstract

Optical data are essential for the accurate nondestructive determination of profiles of periodic structures in integrated-circuit technology. In rigorous coupled-wave analysis, the sample is generally modeled as layers consisting of a single material and the ambient. We extend present capabilities to the analysis of structures with overlayers and demonstrate our approach by determining quantitatively the thicknesses of top, sidewall, and bottom oxides of deliberately and naturally oxidized structures.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. 2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://public.itrs.net.
  2. H.-T. Huang and F. L. Terry, Jr., Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Liu and F. L. Terry, Jr., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 784 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, and T. K. J. Gaylord, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. J. Opsal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 638 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).
  11. L. Li, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1870 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. E. Katz, in VLSI Technology, S.M.Sze, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1988), pp. 99-262.
  13. J. A. Woollam Co. VASE, with the Autoretarder option.
  14. D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982) and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. L. Freeouf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2426 (1988).
    [CrossRef]

2008

E. Liu and F. L. Terry, Jr., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

H.-T. Huang and F. L. Terry, Jr., Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

1988

J. L. Freeouf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Bao, J.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bashara, N. M.

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

Bloeß, H.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. J. Opsal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, H.

Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. J. Opsal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drévillon, B.

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L. M.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foldyna, M.

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freeouf, J. L.

J. L. Freeouf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K. J.

Geiler, T.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E. B.

Hatit, S. B.

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hingst, T.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-T.

H.-T. Huang and F. L. Terry, Jr., Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jakatdar, N.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katz, L. E.

L. E. Katz, in VLSI Technology, S.M.Sze, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1988), pp. 99-262.

Li, G.

Y.-C. Chang, G. Li, H. Chu, and J. J. Opsal, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 638 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Liu, E.

E. Liu and F. L. Terry, Jr., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martino, A. D.

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Mört, M.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niu, X.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opsal, J.

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opsal, J. J.

Pommet, D. A.

Reinig, P.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spanos, C. J.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terry, F. L.

E. Liu and F. L. Terry, Jr., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Huang and F. L. Terry, Jr., Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

P. Reinig, T. Geiler, M. Mört, T. Hingst, H. Bloeß, J. Renger, and L. M. Eng, AIP Conf. Proc. 931, 89 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Freeouf, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf.

X. Niu, N. Jakatdar, J. Bao, and C. J. Spanos, IEEE Trans. Semicond. Manuf. 14, 97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Phys. Status Solidi A

E. Liu and F. L. Terry, Jr., Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 784 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hatit, M. Foldyna, A. D. Martino, and B. Drévillon, Phys. Status Solidi A 205, 743 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. Opsal, H. Chu, Y. Wen, Y.-C. Chang, and G. Li, Proc. SPIE 4689, 163 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

H.-T. Huang and F. L. Terry, Jr., Thin Solid Films 455-456, 828 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, 1977).

2007 International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, http://public.itrs.net.

L. E. Katz, in VLSI Technology, S.M.Sze, ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1988), pp. 99-262.

J. A. Woollam Co. VASE, with the Autoretarder option.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-material and (b) two-material models. A contiguous overlayer is indicated schematically in (b). For RCWA the structures are divided into layers, as indicated by the horizontal lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section of a model structure consisting of an Si O 2 overlayer on Si. (b)–(d) Differences in irreducible parameters where the overlayer is 3 nm thick. The red, green, and blue lines give the contributions from the top, side, and bottom oxides, respectively, to the total shown in black.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TEM image of the cross section of one period of a thermally oxidized Si grating. The layers used for RCWA are shown as the horizontal lines. The RCWA profile determined from the ψ and Δ data of (b) is shown by the envelope lines. (b) Open circles and squares, ψ and Δ data, respectively; lines, RCWA best fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As Fig. 3, but for a naturally oxidized grating.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϵ ( x ) = h ϵ h exp ( j 2 π h Λ x ) ,
ϵ h = { ϵ a f + ϵ b ( 1 f ) for h = 0 ( ϵ a ϵ b ) sin ( π h f ) π h for h 0 } ,
ϵ h = { ϵ b ( 1 f ) + ϵ a f + ( ϵ c ϵ a ) 2 δ Λ for h = 0 ( ϵ c ϵ b ) π h sin ( π h f ) + ( ϵ a ϵ c ) π h sin ( π h f 2 π h Λ δ ) for h 0 } .

Metrics