Abstract

We show that ultrafast carrier dynamics plays an important role on slow- and fast-light effects based on coherent population oscillations in quantum-dot semiconductor waveguides. Fast light in the gain regime and slow light in the absorption regime are found to be enhanced at frequencies beyond the usual limits of the carrier lifetime. The effects are investigated by a comprehensive model and are shown to originate from nonequilibrium dynamics within the quantum-dot carrier populations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. Chang-Hasnain and S. L. Chuang, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4642 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Matsudaira, D. Lee, P. Kondratko, D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, J. M. Oh, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, and J. W. Jang, Opt. Lett. 32, 2894 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Pesala, F. Sedgwick, A. Uskov, and C. Chang-Hasnain, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, C46 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Berg and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1527 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. K. Kondratko and S. L. Chuang, Opt. Express 15, 9963 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, and J. Mørk, Opt. Lett. 21, 1084 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mørk, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3734 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

A. Matsudaira, D. Lee, P. Kondratko, D. Nielsen, S. L. Chuang, N. J. Kim, J. M. Oh, S. H. Pyun, W. G. Jeong, and J. W. Jang, Opt. Lett. 32, 2894 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Kondratko and S. L. Chuang, Opt. Express 15, 9963 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Berg and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, T.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berg, T.

T. Berg and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bimberg, D.

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bogatov, A. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Born, H.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

Chen, Y.

Chuang, S. L.

Ebe, H.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gartner, P.

T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gehrig, E.

D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guffarth, F.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, P. L.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heitz, R.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hess, O.

D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, A.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, M.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, F.

T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. W.

Jeong, W. G.

Kamamoto, T.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khairetdinov, K. A.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. J.

Kondratko, P.

Kondratko, P. K.

Laemmlin, M.

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ledntsov, N. N.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

Lepeshkin, N. N.

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manning, R. J.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matsudaira, A.

Meuer, C.

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mørk, J.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, and J. Mørk, Opt. Lett. 21, 1084 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mørk, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3734 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Berg and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakata, Y.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

Nilsen, T. R.

T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O'Driscoll, I.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. M.

Öhman, F.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, and J. Mørk, Opt. Lett. 21, 1084 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, W. Xue, F. Öhman, and J. Mørk, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 3734 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, P. G.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

O'Reilly, E. P.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Otsubo, K.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pesala, B.

Piwonski, T.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pyun, S. H.

Rakhval'skil, M. P.

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reschener, D. W.

D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Schleussner, C. F.

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schliwa, A.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sedgwick, F.

Stier, O.

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Uskov, A.

Uskov, A. V.

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Poel, M.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xue, W.

Yvind, K.

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. O'Driscoll, T. Piwonski, C. F. Schleussner, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and R. J. Manning, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

J. Kim, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, D. Bimberg, and G. Eisenstein, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 240 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Berg and J. Mørk, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 1527 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Reschener, E. Gehrig, and O. Hess, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

M. Sugawara, N. Hatori, M. Ishida, H. Ebe, Y. Arakawa, T. Akiyama, K. Otsubo, T. Kamamoto, and Y. Nakata, J. Phys. D 38, 2126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

J. Mørk, F. Öhman, M. van der Poel, Y. Chen, P. L. Hansen, and K. Yvind, Laser Photonics Rev. 3, 30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. V. Uskov, E. P. O'Reilly, M. Laemmlin, N. N. Ledntsov, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Commun. 248, 211 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Sugawara, H. Ebe, N. Hatori, and M. Ishida, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235332 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Nilsen, P. Gartner, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. B 69, 235314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Heitz, H. Born, F. Guffarth, O. Stier, A. Schliwa, A. Hoffmann, and D. Bimberg, Phys. Rev. B 64, 241305(R) (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. P. Bogatov, P. G. Eliseev, P. G. Okhotnikov, M. P. Rakhval'skil, and K. A. Khairetdinov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1221 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, schematic configuration for CPO-based slow- or fast-light effects in QD SOAs. PD, photodetector. Right, schematic diagram of inhomogeneously broadened QDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase shift and RF optical gain as a function of modulation frequency at optical transitions corresponding to ground (left) and excited (right) states for different input pump powers under moderate injection current (fast light in gain regime). Solid curves are based on the full model. Dotted curves are based on the CDP model used in [3, 4, 15]. The injected current density is 1 kA cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase shift and RF optical gain as a function of modulation frequency at optical transitions corresponding to ground (left) and excited (right) states for different input pump powers under strong injection current (fast light in gain regime). The injected current density is 10 kA cm 2 .

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t N R = V a 1 I q i ξ i [ F R E i + F R G i ] τ S 1 N R ,
t ρ E i f E i = F R E i F E G i ρ E i f E i τ spon L ξ i V a p g E p , i P p ,
t ρ G i f G i = F R G i + F E G i ρ G i f G i τ spon L ξ i V a p g G p , i P p .
F R E i = ρ E i f W ( 1 f E i ) τ R E 1 ρ E i f E i ( 1 f W ) τ E R 1 ,
F R G i = ρ G i f W ( 1 f G i ) τ R G 1 ρ G i f G i ( 1 f W ) τ G R 1 ,
F E G i = ρ E i f E i ( 1 f G i ) τ E G 1 ρ G i f G i ( 1 f E i ) τ G E 1 .

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