Abstract

Optical atomic magnetometers are often bulky and operate at elevated temperatures that impose restrictions on studying biological samples. Here we report a miniaturized Cs-based magnetometer, in contrast to conventionally used K- and Rb-based ones, with high sensitivity. The magnetic shield employed is more compact, and the optimal operation temperature of 37°C is lower than previous magnetometers and is suitable for biological research. Applications include scanning magnetic imaging of functionalized magnetic particles and nuclear magnetic resonance of water. We reveal that the stability and sensitivity of the apparatus are not significantly affected by the absence of a laser stabilization device.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Bison, R. Wynands, and A. Weis, Opt. Express 11, 904 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Yao and S.-J. Xu, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 5679 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yao and S.-J. Xu, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 5679 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. Bison, R. Wynands, and A. Weis, Opt. Express 11, 904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alem, O.

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allred, J. C.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barabga, A. B.-A.

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bison, G.

Budker, D.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, C. W.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, J. R.

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Donaldson, M. H.

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Espy, M. A.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, N.

D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, J. J.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, D.

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knappe, S.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kominis, I. K.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kornack, T. W.

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kraus, R. H.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ledbetter, M. P.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.-K.

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liew, L.-A.

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyman, R. N.

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreland, J.

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pines, A.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H.

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rochester, S. M.

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Romalis, M. V.

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, K. L.

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savukov, I. M.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwindt, P. D. D.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seltzer, S. J.

I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V.

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Volegov, P. L.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weis, A.

Wemmer, D. E.

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wynands, R.

Xia, H.

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.-J.

L. Yao and S.-J. Xu, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 5679 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yao, L.

L. Yao and S.-J. Xu, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 5679 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zotev, V. S.

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

L. Yao and S.-J. Xu, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 48, 5679 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S.-K. Lee, K. L. Sauer, S. J. Seltzer, O. Alem, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 214106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Xia, A. B.-A. Barabga, D. Hoffman, and M. V. Romalis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Xu, M. H. Donaldson, A. Pines, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and V. V. Yashchuk, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 224105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L.-A. Liew, S. Knappe, J. Moreland, H. Robinson, L. Hollberg, and J. Kitching, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2694 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Concepts Magn. Reson. (1)

D. Yu, N. Garcia, and S. Xu, Concepts Magn. Reson. 34, 124 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Magn. Reson. (3)

I. M. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer, and M. V. Romalis, J. Magn. Reson. 185, 214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Ledbetter, C. W. Crawford, A. Pines, D. E. Wemmer, S. Knappe, J. Kitching, and D. Budker, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 25 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Savukov, V. S. Zotev, P. L. Volegov, M. A. Espy, J. J. Gomez, and R. H. Kraus, J. Magn. Reson. 199, 188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

V. Shah, S. Knappe, P. D. D. Schwindt, and J. Kitching, Nat. Photonics 1, 649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

D. Budker and M. V. Romalis, Nat. Phys. 3, 227 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

I. K. Kominis, T. W. Kornack, J. C. Allred, and M. V. Romalis, Nature 422, 596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. C. Allred, R. N. Lyman, T. W. Kornack, and M. V. Romalis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 130801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

S.-J. Xu, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, S. M. Rochester, D. Budker, and A. Pines, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 12668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S.-J. Xu, S. M. Rochester, V. V. Yashchuk, M. H. Donaldson, and D. Budker, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Yashchuk, D. Budker, and J. R. Davis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 341 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and photograph of the magnetometer. (b) Configuration for imaging of magnetic nanoparticles. (c) Schematic of remote nuclear magnetic resonance: B 0 , 2 T ; π pulse, 1.75 kHz with 5.5 ms duration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sensitivity measurement using a 100 pT , 0.1 Hz magnetic field. The inset shows the noise level. (b) Temperature optimization of the two sensors.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Magnetic field profiles of 20 nL of magnetic solution (black and green) and their fits (red and blue, respectively). (b) Flow profile of 100 μ L of water. (c) Stability comparison between nonstabilized (black) and stabilized (red) modes.

Metrics