Abstract

We report negative and positive refraction in a prism made of stacked perforated thin surfaces for s and p polarization, respectively. By corrugating the subwavelength slits of a free-standing periodic arrangement, geometrically induced surface-plasmon-like currents are excited and transmission is allowed under s polarization (electric-field vector parallel to the slit). When several of those corrugated slit arrays are subwavelength stacked, the stack behaves as a negative effective index medium (because of double negativity) under s polarization, whereas it behaves as a positive effective index medium under p polarization. The birefringence has been confirmed by the usual wedge experiment in the millimeter-wave range.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Beruete, M. Navarro-Cía, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, Opt. Express 15, 8125 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009

M. Navarro-Cía, D. C. Skigin, M. Beruete, and M. Sorolla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091107-1 (2009).

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kuznetsov, M. Navarro-Cía, V. V. Kubarev, A. V. Gelfand, M. Beruete, I. Campillo, and M. Sorolla, Opt. Express 17, 11730 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

M. Navarro-Cía, M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, Opt. Express 16, 560 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beruete, M. Navarro-Cía, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053102-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, Opt. Express 14, 5445 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J. S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. García-Vidal, Opt. Lett. 29, 2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. K. Iyer, and P. C. Kremer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

U. Schröder and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

Bravo-Abad, J.

Campillo, I.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Depine, R. A.

D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolado, J. S.

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. K. Iyer, and P. C. Kremer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fernández-Domínguez, A. I.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J. S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. García-Vidal, Opt. Lett. 29, 2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gelfand, A. V.

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. G.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, D.

U. Schröder and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Iyer, A. K.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. K. Iyer, and P. C. Kremer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, P. C.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. K. Iyer, and P. C. Kremer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kubarev, V. V.

Kuznetsov, S. A.

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, I. Campillo, J. S. Dolado, L. Martín-Moreno, J. Bravo-Abad, and F. J. García-Vidal, Opt. Lett. 29, 2500 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Cía, M.

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, U.

U. Schröder and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Skigin, D. C.

M. Navarro-Cía, D. C. Skigin, M. Beruete, and M. Sorolla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091107-1 (2009).

D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, M. M. J.

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, R. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. M. J. Treacy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 606 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Navarro-Cía, D. C. Skigin, M. Beruete, and M. Sorolla, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091107-1 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

G. V. Eleftheriades, A. K. Iyer, and P. C. Kremer, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 50, 2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. Beruete, M. Navarro-Cía, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 053102-1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, J. Opt. A 8, S94 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, L. Martín-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, J. Opt. A 7, S97 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. G. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and R. A. Wolff, Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

U. Schröder and D. Heitmann, Phys. Rev. B 58, 15419 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal and L. Martín-Moreno, Phys. Rev. B 66, 155412 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. B 79, 233104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, Jr., and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. C. Skigin and R. A. Depine, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 217402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. García-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized dispersion diagram for slit arrays (gray) with two different widths a = 0.78 d x (dashed-dotted lines) and s = 0.26 d x (dashed line); corrugated slit arrays (solid lines), p and s polarization ( E x and E y , respectively). Insets, unit cell in each case.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated electric-field distribution for (a) s polarization and (b) p polarization. To guide the eye, the wedge profile and the normal have been highlighted by solid and dashed-dotted lines, respectively. The direction of the power flow is indicated by a white arrow.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Picture of the real prototype. Inset, detail of the perforated surface with key parameters. (b) Sketch of the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Angular power distribution normalized to its maximum for both polarizations at 53.8 GHz . The spots correspond to the measurement results, whereas the curves are a smooth spline interpolation. (b) Evolution of the refractive index as a function of the frequency for both polarizations. Gray areas are the experimental points along with the corresponding error bars. Curves are the equivalent simulation results derived from the dispersion diagram (solid) and from the standard S-parameter method (dashed). Inset, sketch of the perforated thin layer with the polarization definition.

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