Abstract

Kalman adaptive filtering was applied for the first time, to our knowledge, to the real-time simultaneous determination of water isotopic ratios using laser absorption spectroscopy at 2.73μm. Measurements of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopologue ratios δO18, δO17, and δH2 in water showed a 1σ precision of 0.72‰ for δO18, 0.48‰ for δO17, and 0.84‰ for δH2, while sampling the output of the tuned Kalman filter at 1 s time intervals. Using a standard running average technique, averaging over 30  s is required to obtain the same level of precision.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Bartlome, R.

Carlisle, C. B.

Chen, W.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claps, R.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fried, A.

Gianfrani, L.

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harman, T. L.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerstel, E.

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerstel, E. R. Th.

E. R. Th. Kerstel and H. A. J. Meijer, in Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, P.K.Aggarwal, J.Gat, and K.Froehlich, eds. (Kluwer, 2005), Chap. 9, pp. 109-124.

Leleux, D. P.

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meijer, H. A. J.

E. R. Th. Kerstel and H. A. J. Meijer, in Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, P.K.Aggarwal, J.Gat, and K.Froehlich, eds. (Kluwer, 2005), Chap. 9, pp. 109-124.

Mücke, R.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, X.

Richter, D.

Riris, H.

Sigrist, M. W.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F. K.

Varghese, P. L.

Vaughn, B. H.

Walega, J. G.

Warren, R. E.

Weibring, P.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wert, B. P.

White, J. W. C.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (3)

P. Werle, R. Mücke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Leleux, R. Claps, W. Chen, F. K. Tittel, and T. L. Harman, Appl. Phys. B 74, 85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kerstel and L. Gianfrani, Appl. Phys. B 92, 439 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

E. R. Th. Kerstel and H. A. J. Meijer, in Isotopes in the Water Cycle: Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science, P.K.Aggarwal, J.Gat, and K.Froehlich, eds. (Kluwer, 2005), Chap. 9, pp. 109-124.

HITRAN database, http://www.hitran.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical layout. PM1 and PM2, parabolic mirrors with effective focal length of 25 and 50 mm, respectively; F1 and F2, lenses with focal length of 200 and 50 mm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

H 2 O isotopologue absorption spectrum (a) measured in this work. Data were fitted to Voigt and Galatry profiles. Residuals resulting from each fit are shown from (b) Voigt and (c) Galatry fits, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upper three panels, raw measurements of δ O 18 , δ O 17 , and δ H 2 (dots) and the corresponding Kalman-filter output for a q value of 150 (lines). The Allan variances in the lower panel show an optimal averaging time of about 30 s for the present laser system: (a) δ O 18 , (b) δ O 17 , (c) δ H 2 .

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of the Absorption Lines Used in this Work

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement Precision Comparison: Raw Measured δ Was Determined from the Average of 10 Laser Scans in 1 s a

Equations (2)

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x k + 1 = x k + w k .
z k = x k + v k ,

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