Abstract

We present an optical fiber refractometer based on a Fabry–Perot interferometer defined by two fiber Bragg gratings and an intracavity long-period grating that makes the light confined in the resonator interact with the surrounding medium. The external refractive index is monitored by the resonant frequencies of the Fabry–Perot interferometer, which can be measured either in transmission or in reflection. In this first experiment, wavelength shifts measured with a resolution of 0.1pm have allowed one to establish a refractive index detection limit of 2.1×105.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, Opt. Lett. 33, 563 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

Y. B. Barmenkov, D. Zaldivea, S. Torres-Peiro, J. L. Cruz, and M. V. Andrés, Opt. Express 14, 6394 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, and P. Lalame, Opt. Express 13, 56 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1982 (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ahlfeldt, H.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, R.

Andrés, M. V.

Archambault, J. L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badenes, G.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Barmenkov, Y. B.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bey, S. K. A. K.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

Binu, S.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekaran, N.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chau, L. K.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. F.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, O.

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. Y.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, J. L.

Díez, A.

Ding, J. F.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Edwall, G.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

Grattan, K. T. V.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hockley, B.

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. T.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jha, R.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, C. S.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lalame, P.

Lam, C. C. C.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan, V. P.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matías, I. R.

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ose, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Padhy, B. B.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelayo, J.

Peshko, I.

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradeepkumar, V.

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

Reekie, L.

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Rubtsov, V.

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rutkevich, T.

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sáez-Rodríguez, D.

Sahlgren, B.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandren, S.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, R.

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Subías, J.

Sun, T.

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. L.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tormos, J.

Torres-Peiro, S.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Villar, I. D.

Villatoro, J.

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, G. Badenes, and V. Pruneri, Opt. Lett. 34, 617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villuendas, F.

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. H.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zaldivea, D.

Zhang, A. P.

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Jha, J. Villatoro, and G. Badenes, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt. (1)

A. Asseh, S. Sandren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Dong, J. L. Cruz, L. Reekie, and J. L. Archambault, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1433 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ding, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. H. Yan, and S. He, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1247 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 1612 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng., C (1)

S. Binu, V. P. Mahadevan, V. Pradeepkumar, B. B. Padhy, C. S. Joseph, and N. Chandrasekaran, Mater. Sci. Eng., C 29, 183 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

I. Peshko, O. Cherry, T. Rutkevich, B. Hockley, and V. Rubtsov, Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 2221 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1576 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Allsop, R. Reeves, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, and R. Neal, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, Sens. Actuators B 119, 105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators, A (1)

S. K. A. K. Bey, C. C. C. Lam, T. Sun, and K. T. V. Grattan, Sens. Actuators, A 141, 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D.R.Lide, ed., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 82nd ed. (CRC Press, 2001).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the interferometer: FBG, fiber Bragg grating; LPG, long-period grating; PC, polarization controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Long-period fiber grating spectra: dashed curve, half-length-grating response; solid curve, full-length-grating response.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflection response of the interferometer in air (A) and in water (B). Detail of the transmission response with arbitrary polarization (C) and with polarization along a principal axis (D).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Top, interferometric fringes at different glucose concentrations, from left to right: 0, 0.31, 0.60, 0.90, 1.6, and 2.0 wt. % . Bottom, resonant wavelength shift as a function of concentration.

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