Abstract

The UV photorefractivity of LiNbO3:Hf was investigated by beam distortion and two-wave coupling experiments. A sharp decrease of beam distortion was found between Hf concentrations of 2 and 2.5mol.%, indicating a significant increase of photoconductivity there. The energy-transfer direction of the two-wave coupling and the effect of chemical reduction on the UV photorefractivity reveal that electrons are the carriers responsible for the UV photorefraction. Moreover, dissimilar with LiNbO3 highly doped with Mg, Zn, and In, the grating recorded in LiNbO3:Hf was found to be nearly stable in the dark but sensitive to red light, which can be attributed to the special location of Fe ions in the crystal lattice.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita, S. Sunarno, and G. Zhang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Cristiani, I.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Express 15, 14171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Degiorgio, V.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Express 15, 14171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Engel, T.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, Y.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, J. B.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hatano, H.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hilgenberg, D.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Imlau, M.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungen, R.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. G.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kokanyan, E. P.

P. Minzioni, I. Cristiani, J. Yu, J. Parravicini, E. P. Kokanyan, and V. Degiorgio, Opt. Express 15, 14171 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laeri, F.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mamaev, A. V.

Merschjann, C.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minzioni, P.

Parravicini, J.

Qiao, H.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, Ph.D. Dissertation (Nankai University, 2003).

Razumovski, N. V.

Razzari, L.

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubinina, N. M.

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoke, B.

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sunarno, S.

Takekawa, S.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, Y.

Uchida, Y.

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vietze, U.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Volk, T. R.

Würtzand, M.

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zhang, G.

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tomita, S. Sunarno, and G. Zhang, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 753 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Laeri, R. Jungen, G. Angelow, U. Vietze, T. Engel, M. Würtzand, and D. Hilgenberg, Appl. Phys. B 61, 351 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

E. P. Kokanyan, L. Razzari, I. Cristiani, V. Degiorgio, and J. B. Gruber, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1880 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, S. Liu, Y. Kong, J. Xu, and G. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101126 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Lee, I. G. Kim, S. Takekawa, Y. Furukawa, Y. Uchida, K. Kitamura, and H. Hatano, J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5311 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

O. F. Schirmer, M. Imlau, C. Merschjann, and B. Schoke, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21, 123201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Qiao, Ph.D. Dissertation (Nankai University, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distortion of transmitted UV beam spots after irradiation of 5 min ; a–e correspond to LN doped with 2, 2.5, 3, 4, and 6 mol. % Hf.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal curves of the transmitted intensities in the two-wave coupling experiments for sample Hf4a.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV photorefractive parameters of the samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decay behavior of the index grating recorded in Hf-doped LN under a red-light probe.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schemes of the energy-level system for (a) highly Mg, Zn, and In-doped LN and (b) highly Hf-doped LN.

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