Abstract

The thermal stability of Type I gratings is increased by postthermal tuning of the grating. Optimization of the procedure leads to gratings that can withstand temperatures as high as 600°C. Aging tests lead to lifetime predictions as high as 25 years with <3dB reduction at 400°C. Single exponential relaxation is observed. Above 800°C regeneration is obtained.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008

2007

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2000

D. Kersey, IEICE Trans. E83-C, 400 (2000).

1999

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3746, 42 (1999).

1997

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

Angell, C. A.

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åslund, M. L.

Atkins, G. R.

Baker, S. R.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, V.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canning, J.

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Åslund, N. Jovanovic, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 16, 14248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Sørenson, J. Canning, and M. Kristensen, Opt. Express 13, 2276 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Hill, G. R. Atkins, J. Canning, G. Cox, and M. G. Sceats, Appl. Opt. 34, 7689 (1995), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Epaarachchi, J. Canning, and M. Stevenson, J. Compos. Mater. DOI:10.1177/0021998309346382 (2009).

Cardozo da Silva, J. C.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cox, G.

Ding, H.

Epaarachchi, J.

J. Epaarachchi, J. Canning, and M. Stevenson, J. Compos. Mater. DOI:10.1177/0021998309346382 (2009).

Fuerbach, A.

Goodchild, D.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

M. L. Åslund, N. Jovanovic, N. Groothoff, J. Canning, G. D. Marshall, S. D. Jackson, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, Opt. Express 16, 14248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, P.

Inglis, H. G.

H. G. Inglis, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, 1997).

Jackson, S. D.

Jovanovic, N.

Kalinowski, H. J.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, D.

D. Kersey, IEICE Trans. E83-C, 400 (2000).

Kristensen, M.

Lu, P.

Marshall, G. D.

Martelli, C.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Penner, E.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, H. N.

S. R. Baker, H. N. Rourke, V. Baker, and D. Goodchild, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1470 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sceats, M. G.

Schroeder, R. J.

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3746, 42 (1999).

Smelser, C. W.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sørenson, H. R.

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Bandyopadhyay, J. Canning, M. Stevenson, and K. Cook, Opt. Lett. 33, 1917 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Epaarachchi, J. Canning, and M. Stevenson, J. Compos. Mater. DOI:10.1177/0021998309346382 (2009).

Udd, E.

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3746, 42 (1999).

Unruh, J.

Walker, R. B.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, C. W. Smelser, D. Grobnic, R. B. Walker, P. Lu, H. Ding, and J. Unruh, J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 94 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Yamate, T.

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3746, 42 (1999).

Appl. Opt.

IEICE Trans.

D. Kersey, IEICE Trans. E83-C, 400 (2000).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Laser Photonics Rev.

J. Canning, Laser Photonics Rev. 2, 275 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

D. Grobnic, C. W. Smelser, S. J. Mihailov, and R. B. Walker, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1009 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lasers Eng.

J. C. Cardozo da Silva, C. Martelli, H. J. Kalinowski, E. Penner, J. Canning, and N. Groothoff, Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

R. J. Schroeder, T. Yamate, and E. Udd, Proc. SPIE 3746, 42 (1999).

Science

C. A. Angell, Science 267, 1924 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sensors

J. Canning, M. Stevenson, S. Bandyopadhyay, and K. Cook, Sensors 8, 6448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Epaarachchi, J. Canning, and M. Stevenson, J. Compos. Mater. DOI:10.1177/0021998309346382 (2009).

H. G. Inglis, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Sydney, 1997).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectra of fiber Bragg gratings I–IV after different thermal processing histories prior to isochronal annealing. Inset, typical seed grating, ranging approximately 57 60 dB .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Maximum reflectivity as a function of time during isochronal annealing of the four fiber Bragg grating samples prepared with different thermal processes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive index modulations as a function of time for grating III at 700 ° C (points) during isochronal annealing, fitted with single exponential decay function (line). Inset, modified Arrhenius plot of time constants from fits from gratings II and III.

Equations (1)

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N ( t ) = N 0 exp [ ( t τ ) β ] ,

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