Abstract

We report the direct observation of the electromagnetic-field distribution of whispering gallery modes in silica microcavities (spheres and toroids). It is revealed by their excitation efficiency with a tapered fiber coupler swept along the meridian. The originality of this method lies in the use of the coupler itself for the near-field mapping, eliminating the need of additional tools used in previous work. This method is successfully applied to microspheres and microtoroids.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

S. Götzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, D. K.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, P. W.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

S. Götzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Brune, M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, G.

Collot, L.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Demmerer, S.

S. Götzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, C.

Dubreuil, N.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, S.

S. Götzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, G.

Han, Z.

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

Hill, S. C.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V.

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, F.

Kippenberg, T. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Lai, H. M.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

F. Orucevic, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, and J. Hare, Opt. Express 15, 13624 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Opt. Lett. 20, 1515 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leung, P. T.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, R.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A.

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orucevic, F.

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raimond, J. M.

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, J. -M.

Sandoghdar, V.

Savchenkov, A.

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schiller, S.

Spillane, S. M.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strekalov, D.

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Klitzing, W.

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, Y.

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Young, K.

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Savchenkov, A. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Electron. Lett. 41, 495 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

L. Collot, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Europhys. Lett. 23, 327 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

S. Götzinger, S. Demmerer, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, J. Microsc. 202, 117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. K. Armani, T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, Nature 421, 925 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

W. von Klitzing, R. Long, V. S. Ilchenko, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre-Seguin, New J. Phys. 3, 14.1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, Opt. Commun. 113, 133 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. M. Lai, P. T. Leung, K. Young, P. W. Barber, and S. C. Hill, Phys. Rev. A 41, 5187 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Optical Processes in Microcavities, R.K.Chang and A.J.Campillo, eds., Vol. 3 of Advanced Series in Applied Physics (World Scientific, 1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental setup, with definition of the x , y , z axes used hereafter. S, sphere (not to scale); T, taper; PZT, three-axis piezoelectric stage; and G, goniometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical taper transmission spectrum for a prolate microsphere of diameter 2 a 68 μ m and ellipticity e 0.4 % . Each line corresponds to the q = | m | value given below it. The bottom curve is the spectrum of a confocal Fabry–Perot interferometer providing the frequency scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) 3D plot of taper transmission spectra for different z positions; inset, sphere and taper relative positions. (b) Normalized resonance area for q = 0 , , 4 as a function of z. Symbols, experimental data; solid lines, best fit of the data using Eq. (3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D plot of taper transmission spectra for different θ. Inset, definition of θ coordinate.

Equations (3)

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δ ν , m / ν , m e ( 1 / 3 q / ) ,
C q ( r , θ ) = K q | Y q ( θ ) | 2 e 2 κ ( r a ) γ q ( 0 ) / γ q ( L ) ,
A q ( z ) H q 2 ( z / a ) exp [ ( + κ a ) z 2 / a 2 ] .

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