Abstract

A Schottky contact detector comprising a symmetric metal stripe buried in Si, capable of detecting surface plasmons at wavelengths below the bandgap of Si, is described. A model for the detector is proposed, and its performance is assessed at λ0=1550  nm assuming a CoSi2 stripe in p-type Si. End-fire coupled responsivities of about 0.1 A/W and minimum detectable powers of about −20 dBm are predicted at room temperature.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 43, 569 (1982).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Scales and P. Berini, “Schottky barrier photodetectors,” U.S. patent 7,026,701 (April 11, 2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

2009 (2)

P. Berini, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Akbari and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1995 (1)

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, B. Nechay, and B.-Y. Tsaur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 1094 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Duboz and P. A. Badoz, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 43, 569 (1982).

1967 (1)

D. W. Peters, Proc. IEEE 55, 704 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Akbari, A.

A. Akbari and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Apsley, N.

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, E. T.

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Badoz, P. A.

J. Y. Duboz and P. A. Badoz, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Baird, M. J.

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

A. Akbari and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Schottky barrier photodetectors,” U.S. patent 7,026,701 (April 11, 2006).

Berolo, E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Charbonneau, P. Berini, E. Berolo, and E. Lisicka-Shrzek, Opt. Lett. 25, 844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

C. K. Chen, B. Nechay, and B.-Y. Tsaur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 1094 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Daboo, C.

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Diadiuk, V.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Duboz, J. Y.

J. Y. Duboz and P. A. Badoz, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Elabd, H.

H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 43, 569 (1982).

Emeny, M. T.

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, G.

Groppe, J. V.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, H. P.

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J. R.

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kalkhoran, N. M.

Karakashian, A. S.

Koker, D. M.

Kolodinski, S.

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kosonocky, W. F.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 43, 569 (1982).

Lahoud, N.

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, K. K.

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lisicka-Shrzek, E.

Mattiussi, G.

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mertens, R.

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Namavar, F.

Nechay, B.

C. K. Chen, B. Nechay, and B.-Y. Tsaur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 1094 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nikolajsen, R.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D. W.

D. W. Peters, Proc. IEEE 55, 704 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Roca, E.

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salakhutdinov, I.

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scales, C.

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Schottky barrier photodetectors,” U.S. patent 7,026,701 (April 11, 2006).

Schowalter, L. J.

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shallcross, F. W.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

Teng, Y. Y.

Torosian, K. M.

Tsaur, B. -Y.

C. K. Chen, B. Nechay, and B.-Y. Tsaur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 1094 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Villani, T. S.

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. -C.

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Roca, K. K. Larsen, S. Kolodinski, and R. Mertens, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1372 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Akbari and P. Berini, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 021104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. J. Brueck, V. Diadiuk, T. Jones, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 915 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

W. F. Kosonocky, F. W. Shallcross, T. S. Villani, and J. V. Groppe, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 1564 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Chen, B. Nechay, and B.-Y. Tsaur, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 1094 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 043109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z.-C. Wu, E. T. Arakawa, J. R. Jimenez, and L. J. Schowalter, J. Appl. Phys. 71, 5601 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Berini, Phys. Rev. B 61, 10484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Duboz and P. A. Badoz, Phys. Rev. B 44, 8061 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. W. Peters, Proc. IEEE 55, 704 (1967).
[CrossRef]

RCA Rev. (1)

H. Elabd and W. F. Kosonocky, RCA Rev. 43, 569 (1982).

Thin Solid Films (1)

C. Daboo, M. J. Baird, H. P. Hughes, N. Apsley, and M. T. Emeny, Thin Solid Films 201, 9 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 1981).

C. Scales and P. Berini, “Schottky barrier photodetectors,” U.S. patent 7,026,701 (April 11, 2006).

E.D.Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surface-plasmon Schottky contact detector based on a metal stripe buried in Si. (a) Front cross-sectional and (b) isometric views.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MPA of the s s b 0 mode propagating along a CoSi 2 stripe buried in Si at λ 0 = 1550   nm as a function of stripe width and thickness ( w , t ) .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

R (in ampere/watt) at λ 0 = 1550   nm as a function of stripe width and thickness ( w , t ) for a detector length of L = 250 μ m . The inset shows the energy band diagram of a Schottky contact on p -Si and the three-step internal photoemission process: photoexcitation, transport, emission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

S min (in dBm) at λ 0 = 1550   nm as a function of stripe width and thickness ( w , t ) for a detector length of L = 250 μ m .

Equations (2)

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η i = 1 h ν Φ B h ν P ( E 0 ) d E 0 .
P ( E 0 ) = P 0 + ( 1 P 0 ) P 1 + ( 1 P 0 ) ( 1 P 1 ) P 2 + + P n k = 0 n 1 ( 1 P k ) ,

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