Abstract

We fabricate a long-period grating band-rejection filter with a lithium niobate (LiNbO3) channel waveguide, where the grating is formed on the waveguide surface by plasma reactive ion etching. The filter shows three distinct thermal tuning regimes. Below 55°C, the center wavelength of the rejection band decreases linearly with an increase in the temperature at a high sensitivity (1.4  nm/°C). The temperature sensitivity drops abruptly to a negligible value at 55°C and stays low up to 70°C, above which it jumps abruptly to a large positive value (1.6  nm/°C). We attribute these peculiar tuning characteristics to the formation of different crystal phases in the core and cladding areas of the LiNbO3 waveguide and the abrupt transitions of the thermo-optic coefficients of some crystal phases. The grating could be developed into various kinds of integrated-optic filters and switches for application in optical signal processing.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 1258 (2008).

K. S. Chiang and S. Y. Cheng, Opt. Eng. 47, 034601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Tamura and S. Yoshikado, Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, Appl. Opt. 41, 6351 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

P. W. Leech and M. C. Ridgway, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988

J. Sochtig, Electron. Lett. 24, 844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Alcazarde, A.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, B.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arora, P.

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benkelfat, B. E.

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bermudez, V.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. P.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. Y.

K. S. Chiang and S. Y. Cheng, Opt. Eng. 47, 034601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 1258 (2008).

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang and S. Y. Cheng, Opt. Eng. 47, 034601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and K. P. Lor, Opt. Lett. 31, 2716 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, Appl. Opt. 41, 6351 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. K.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y. M.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fedorov, V. A.

Y. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferrière, R.

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 1258 (2008).

Korkishko, Y. N.

Y. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leech, P. W.

P. W. Leech and M. C. Ridgway, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 1258 (2008).

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and K. P. Lor, Opt. Lett. 31, 2716 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lor, K. P.

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and K. P. Lor, Opt. Lett. 31, 2716 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mollier, P.

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V. M.

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petter, J.

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramiro, B.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rams, J.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rastogi, V.

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Rastogi and K. S. Chiang, Appl. Opt. 41, 6351 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridgway, M. C.

P. W. Leech and M. C. Ridgway, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rojo, G.

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sochtig, J.

J. Sochtig, Electron. Lett. 24, 844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

M. Tamura and S. Yoshikado, Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wacogne, B.

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikado, S.

M. Tamura and S. Yoshikado, Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

A. Alcazarde, B. Ramiro, J. Rams, B. Alonso, G. Rojo, V. Bermudez, and J. M. Cabrera, Appl. Phys. B 79, 845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. Sochtig, Electron. Lett. 24, 844 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. N. Korkishko and V. A. Fedorov, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 187 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. E. Benkelfat, R. Ferrière, B. Wacogne, and P. Mollier, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, K. P. Lor, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, V. Rastogi, and Y. M. Chu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1094 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, and K. P. Lor, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

K. S. Chiang, J. Lightwave Technol. 3, 385 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

P. W. Leech and M. C. Ridgway, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 3358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Arora, V. M. Petrov, J. Petter, and T. Tschudi, Opt. Commun. 281, 2067 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

K. S. Chiang and S. Y. Cheng, Opt. Eng. 47, 034601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, Opt. Express 20, 1258 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi A

L. Arizmendi, Phys. Status Solidi A 201, 253 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Technol.

M. Tamura and S. Yoshikado, Surf. Coat. Technol. 169-170, 203 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a long-period corrugation grating formed on a clad LiNbO 3 channel waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical image and (b) surface profile of the fabricated corrugation grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Near-field images taken from the output of the grating at 25 ° C : (a) at the resonance wavelength 1584 nm and (b) at the off-resonance wavelength 1560 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Change of the resonance wavelength of the grating with the temperature, and (b) normalized transmission spectra measured from 25 ° C to 55.2 ° C ; (c) from 55.2 ° C to 69.5 ° C ; and (d) from 69.5 ° C to 79.5 ° C .

Equations (1)

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d λ 0 d T γ Λ ( C co C cl ) ( η 0 co η m co ) ,

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