Abstract

We report numerical simulation and hyperspectral Raman imaging of three index-guiding solid-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) of different air-cladding microstructures to assess their respective potential for evanescent-field Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on achieving surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) over the entire fiber length. Suspended-core PCF consisting of a silica core surrounded by three large air channels conjoined by a thin silica web is the most robust of the three SERS-active PCFs, with a demonstrated detection sensitivity of 1×1010M R6G in an aqueous solution of only 7.3μL sampling volume.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2004

2003

2001

2000

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V, S.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
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P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bise, R.

Bjarklev, A.

Blanchard, P. M.

Botten, L. C.

Brus, L.

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

Carlsen, A.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dlott, D. D.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, Opt. Express 14, 3541 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Foo, T. C.

Gander, M. J.

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenaway, A. H.

Gu, C.

Han, Y.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

Hasegawa, T.

Hayes, J. R.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, P.

Hoiby, P. E.

Hou, L.

Howdle, S. M.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. B.

Jin, G.

Jones, J. D. C.

Khaing Oo, M. K.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Koshiba, M.

Liu, J.

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martini, R.

McBride, R.

McPhedran, R. C.

Michaels, A. M.

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Peacock, A. C.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pristinski, D.

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Riishede, J.

Ruan, Y.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Saitoh, K.

Sasaoka, E.

Sazio, P. J. A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seong, N. H.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

Sukhishvili, S.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Tan, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S.

Warren-Smith, S. C.

White, T. P.

Won, D.-J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

Yang, J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem.

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

http://www.comsol.com, accessed January 21, 2010.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional scanning-electron micrographs of (a) NL PCF, (b) SW PCF, and (c) SC PCF; simulated electric field distribution of the fundamental mode in (d) NL PCF, (e) SW PCF, and (f) SC PCF all filled with ethanol at an excitation wavelength of 632.8 nm ; (g) calculated power fraction (PF) in the cladding air channels for NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF filled with air, water, and ethanol at 632.8 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectra from NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF filled with ethanol; hyperspectral Raman images of (b) silica ( 485 cm 1 ) and (c) ethanol ( 2930 cm 1 ) in ethanol-filled NL PCF; (d) silica and (e) ethanol in ethanol-filled SW PCF; (f) silica and (g) ethanol in ethanol-filled SC PCF. The Raman measurements were carried out at 632.8 nm and 5 mW power, with an acquisition time of 20 s and 10 s for spectral analysis and imaging, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SERS spectra from NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF containing immobilized Ag nanoparticles ( 0.2  particle μ m 2 ) and filled with 1 × 10 10 M R6G aqueous solution; corresponding hyperspectral Raman images of (b) silica ( 485 cm 1 ) and (c) R6G ( 1509 cm 1 ) . The Raman measurements were carried out at 632.8 nm and 5 mW power, with an acquisition time of 20 s and 10 s for spectral analysis and imaging, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical and Experimental MFDs in NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF Filled with Ethanol for Propagating Silica ( 485 cm 1 , 652.84 nm ) and Ethanol ( 2930 cm 1 , 776.83 nm ) Raman Signals

Metrics