Abstract

We report numerical simulation and hyperspectral Raman imaging of three index-guiding solid-core photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) of different air-cladding microstructures to assess their respective potential for evanescent-field Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on achieving surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) over the entire fiber length. Suspended-core PCF consisting of a silica core surrounded by three large air channels conjoined by a thin silica web is the most robust of the three SERS-active PCFs, with a demonstrated detection sensitivity of 1×1010M R6G in an aqueous solution of only 7.3μL sampling volume.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, Opt. Lett. 29, 1974 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. Ruan, T. C. Foo, S. Warren-Smith, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 16, 18514 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Yan, J. Liu, C. Yang, G. Jin, C. Gu, and L. Hou, Opt. Express 16, 8300 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, L. C. Botten, and M. J. Steel, Opt. Lett. 26, 1660 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, Opt. Express 14, 3541 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. http://www.comsol.com, accessed January 21, 2010.
  16. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, T. Hasegawa, and E. Sasaoka, Opt. Express 11, 843 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. C. Warren-Smith, S. Afshar V, and T. M. Monro, Opt. Express 16, 9034 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Koshiba and K. Saitoh, Opt. Express 11, 1746 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. J. Gander, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, and A. H. Greenaway, Opt. Lett. 24, 1017 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  21. A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

2007 (1)

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, Opt. Express 14, 3541 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Afshar V, S.

Amezcua-Correa, A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badding, J. V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baril, N. F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bise, R.

Bjarklev, A.

Blanchard, P. M.

Botten, L. C.

Brus, L.

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

Carlsen, A.

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Dlott, D. D.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, H.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, H. Du, and R. Bise, Opt. Express 14, 3541 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Foo, T. C.

Gander, M. J.

Gopalan, V.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenaway, A. H.

Gu, C.

Han, Y.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

Hasegawa, T.

Hayes, J. R.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, P.

Hoiby, P. E.

Hou, L.

Howdle, S. M.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. B.

Jin, G.

Jones, J. D. C.

Khaing Oo, M. K.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Kneipp, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Koshiba, M.

Liu, J.

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martini, R.

McBride, R.

McPhedran, R. C.

Michaels, A. M.

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R. C.

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Peacock, A. C.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Perelman, L. T.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pristinski, D.

D. Pristinski and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 31, 3246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Riishede, J.

Ruan, Y.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Saitoh, K.

Sasaoka, E.

Sazio, P. J. A.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seong, N. H.

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

Sukhishvili, S.

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, R. Martini, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, Opt. Lett. 34, 968 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Tan, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warren-Smith, S.

Warren-Smith, S. C.

White, T. P.

Won, D.-J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yang, C.

Yang, J.

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

A. Amezcua-Correa, J. Yang, C. E. Finlayson, A. C. Peacock, J. R. Hayes, P. J. A. Sazio, J. J. Baumberg, and S. M. Howdle, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2024 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Khaing Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative SERS-active photonic crystal fiber,” Adv. Mater. (to be published).
[PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

A. M. Michaels, Jiang, and L. Brus, J. Phys. Chem. 104, 11965 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. C. Knight, Nature 424, 847 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. T. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

Y. Fang, N. H. Seong, and D. D. Dlott, Science 321, 388 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Russell, Science 299, 358 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D.-J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, Science 311, 1583 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

http://www.comsol.com, accessed January 21, 2010.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional scanning-electron micrographs of (a) NL PCF, (b) SW PCF, and (c) SC PCF; simulated electric field distribution of the fundamental mode in (d) NL PCF, (e) SW PCF, and (f) SC PCF all filled with ethanol at an excitation wavelength of 632.8 nm ; (g) calculated power fraction (PF) in the cladding air channels for NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF filled with air, water, and ethanol at 632.8 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectra from NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF filled with ethanol; hyperspectral Raman images of (b) silica ( 485 cm 1 ) and (c) ethanol ( 2930 cm 1 ) in ethanol-filled NL PCF; (d) silica and (e) ethanol in ethanol-filled SW PCF; (f) silica and (g) ethanol in ethanol-filled SC PCF. The Raman measurements were carried out at 632.8 nm and 5 mW power, with an acquisition time of 20 s and 10 s for spectral analysis and imaging, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SERS spectra from NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF containing immobilized Ag nanoparticles ( 0.2  particle μ m 2 ) and filled with 1 × 10 10 M R6G aqueous solution; corresponding hyperspectral Raman images of (b) silica ( 485 cm 1 ) and (c) R6G ( 1509 cm 1 ) . The Raman measurements were carried out at 632.8 nm and 5 mW power, with an acquisition time of 20 s and 10 s for spectral analysis and imaging, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Theoretical and Experimental MFDs in NL PCF, SW PCF, and SC PCF Filled with Ethanol for Propagating Silica ( 485 cm 1 , 652.84 nm ) and Ethanol ( 2930 cm 1 , 776.83 nm ) Raman Signals

Metrics