Abstract

High efficiency blue, green, and white inverted microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting devices based on blue emitter p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-amino-styryl) benzene-doped 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl) anthracene as the emitting layer are demonstrated. The different colors can be well realized by simply changing the thickness of the hole-transporting layer, thus modifying the cavity length to obtain various resonance wavelengths. The comprehensive analysis on the emission mechanism is presented.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (5)

2008 (1)

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Ma and X. Liu, Appl. Opt. 46, 6247 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, E.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blochwitz-Nimoth, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

Deng, Z.

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Opt. Express 17, 17269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dobbertin, T.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Drechsel, J.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

He, G.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-F.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-W.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, C. H.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Johannes, H.-H.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kammoun, A.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

Lim, J. T.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lyssenko, V.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, D.

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Opt. Express 17, 17269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, F.

Maennig, B.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillipse, J. M.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qin, D. S.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothberg, L. J.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

Tien, K.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuboi, T.

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, L.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Opt. Express 17, 17269 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, A.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werner, O.

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.

Xie, W.

Yang, C.-J.

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

Yeom, G. Y.

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, H.

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, T.

Zhou, X.

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

Q. Wang, J. Ding, D. Ma, Y. Cheng, L. Wang, and F. Wang, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 21, 2397 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhou, M. Pfeiffer, J. S. Huang, J. Blochwitz-Nimoth, D. S. Qin, A. Werner, J. Drechsel, B. Maennig, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 922 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H.-H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Lin, H.-C. Chang, K.-C. Tien, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, Z. Deng, and D. Ma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 233306 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Dodabalapur, L. J. Rothberg, R. H. Jordan, T. M. Miller, R. E. Slusher, and J. M. Phillipse, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6954 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

H. Yokoyama, Science 256, 66 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. S. Kim, C. H. Jeong, J. T. Lim, and G. Y. Yeom, Thin Solid Films 516, 3590 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Measured and simulated EL spectra in normal direction of ITOLEDs with 110, 130, and 140 nm NPB as HTL. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of DSA-ph is also given for comparison. The inset shows a schematic diagram of the planar inverted top-emitting device structure studied. (b) EL spectra of devices 1 and 2 as a function of angle from the surface normal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured and simulated EL spectra in normal direction of ITOLEDs with 60 and 165 nm NPB as HTL. The PL spectrum of DSA-ph and the calculated optical mode density of the microcavity are also shown for comparison. The inset shows comparison of current efficiency-current density characteristics of devices 1–5. (b) EL spectra of device 5 at different operational voltages. The inset shows the EL spectra of device 5 as a function of angle from the surface normal.

Equations (1)

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2 [ λ 4 π ( ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 ) + j n j d j ] = m λ ,

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