Abstract

In this Letter the authors present a field experimental validation of an imaging system that, when combined with a special image-processing algorithm, allows obtaining an improved imaging quality through turbulence perturbation. The system includes simultaneous capturing of three differently focused images and performing an iterative Gerchberg–Saxton based processing for phase retrieval. After the phase is retrieved the intensity of the object is reconstructed by numerical free-space propagation of the extracted complex field to the estimated position of the object.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. N. S. Kopieka, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1999).
  2. Z. Zalevsky, S. Rozental, and M. Meller, Opt. Lett. 32, 1072 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, J. Electron. Imaging 18, 033016 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. Fishbain, I. A. Ideses, G. Shabat, B. G. Salomon, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, Opt. Lett. 34, 587 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.
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    [CrossRef]
  19. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).
  20. F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.
  21. B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, International Journal of Computer Science 32, 2 (2008).

2007 (3)

1990 (1)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

1975 (1)

A. Papoulis, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 22, 735 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, Opt. Acta 21, 709 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (3)

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2217 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2200 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, L6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Crete, F.

F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.

Dainty, J. C.

Dolmiere, T.

F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.

Fienup, J. R.

Fishbain, B.

B. Fishbain, I. A. Ideses, G. Shabat, B. G. Salomon, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, Opt. Lett. 34, 587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Yaroslavsky, B. Fishbain, G. Shabat, and I. Ideses, Opt. Lett. 32, 3038 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.

B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

Gepshtein, S.

S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, Opt. Acta 21, 709 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

Gur, E.

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, J. Electron. Imaging 18, 033016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, International Journal of Computer Science 32, 2 (2008).

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science, WCE2007 (2007), p. 630.

Haik, O.

O. Shacham, O. Haik, and Y. Yitzhaky, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ideses, I.

L. P. Yaroslavsky, B. Fishbain, G. Shabat, and I. Ideses, Opt. Lett. 32, 3038 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

Ideses, I. A.

Kopieka, N. S.

N. S. Kopieka, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1999).

Ladret, P.

F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.

Mavroidis, T.

Meller, M.

Misell, D. L.

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2217 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2200 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, L6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nicolas, M.

F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.

Northcott, M. J.

Papoulis, A.

A. Papoulis, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 22, 735 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Roffet, F.

B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

Rozental, S.

Salomon, B. G.

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Shabat, G.

Shacham, O.

O. Shacham, O. Haik, and Y. Yitzhaky, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shtainman, A.

S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.

Yaroslavsky, L.

B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

Yaroslavsky, L. P.

B. Fishbain, I. A. Ideses, G. Shabat, B. G. Salomon, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, Opt. Lett. 34, 587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Yaroslavsky, B. Fishbain, G. Shabat, and I. Ideses, Opt. Lett. 32, 3038 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.

Yitzhaky, Y.

O. Shacham, O. Haik, and Y. Yitzhaky, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zalevsky, Z.

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, J. Electron. Imaging 18, 033016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, International Journal of Computer Science 32, 2 (2008).

Z. Zalevsky, S. Rozental, and M. Meller, Opt. Lett. 32, 1072 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science, WCE2007 (2007), p. 630.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. (1)

A. Papoulis, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. 22, 735 (1975).
[CrossRef]

International Journal of Computer Science (1)

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, International Journal of Computer Science 32, 2 (2008).

J. Electron. Imaging (1)

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, J. Electron. Imaging 18, 033016 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D (3)

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2217 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, 2200 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Misell, J. Phys. D 6, L6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, Opt. Acta 21, 709 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Pattern Recogn. Lett. (1)

O. Shacham, O. Haik, and Y. Yitzhaky, Pattern Recogn. Lett. 28, 2094 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 1996).

F. Crete, T. Dolmiere, P. Ladret, and M. Nicolas, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2007 (2007), Vol. 6492.

B. Fishbain, L. Yaroslavsky, I. Ideses, and F. Roffet, in SPIE Proceedings of Electronic Imaging 2008 (2008), Vol. 6808.

N. S. Kopieka, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging (SPIE, 1999).

S. Gepshtein, A. Shtainman, B. Fishbain, and L. P. Yaroslavsky, in Proceedings of the European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO 2004) (2004), p. 477.

E. Gur and Z. Zalevsky, Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science, WCE2007 (2007), p. 630.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup. (b) Schematic sketch of the proposed iterative image-reconstruction algorithm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results: (a) high-resolution image captured at short exposure (reduced turbulence distortion). (b) Image blurred due to turbulence (long exposure). (c) Reconstructed image. (d) Enhanced reconstruction with post filtering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross section along the bars appearing in the left side of Fig. 2b (upper G curve), Fig. 2c (lower B curve), and Fig. 2d (middle R curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental results obtained when the proposed iterative approach is applied over each color segment independently. (a) The blurred image obtained after long exposure. (b)–(d) The reconstructed R, G, and B channels respectively. (e) The reconstructed white image obtained when composing the individual R, G, and B reconstructions.

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