Abstract

The interferometric gravitational-wave detector Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) needs to transfer clock information among its three spacecraft in the form of phase-modulation sidebands. For this reason phase noise introduced by the optical chain between the carrier and a sideband must be low. We have measured this differential phase noise for a ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier emitting up to 2W. For 1W of output power as required for LISA, the measured differential phase noise was within its requirement. For 2W output power the amplifier exhibited stimulated Brillouin scattering and showed a differential phase-noise factor of up to 15 higher. Dependencies on operating parameters and optical length noise of the amplifier were also measured.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1, 2003.
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 13, 2224, 2005.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Peral and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1185, 1999.
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1, 2003.
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1185, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Barke, S.

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Braxmaier, C.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Cruz, R.

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

Danzmann, K.

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1, 2003.
[CrossRef]

d'Arcio, L.

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Engelbrecht, M.

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Fallnich, C.

Garcia, A.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Halverson, P. G.

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

Heinzel, G.

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Hoyland, D.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Jennrich, O.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Klipstein, W.

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

Kracht, D.

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Middleton, K.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Möbius, J.

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Peral, E.

E. Peral and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1185, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Peters, R.

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

Robertson, D.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Rüdiger, A.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Schilling, R.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Shaddock, D.

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

Sheard, B.

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Tröbs, M.

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Lett. 30, 789, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tröbs, P. Weßels, and C. Fallnich, Opt. Express 13, 2224, 2005.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wand, V.

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

Weßels, P.

Yariv, A.

E. Peral and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1185, 1999.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Barke, M. Tröbs, B. Sheard, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, Appl. Phys. B 98, 33, 2010.
[CrossRef]

Class. Quantum Grav. (2)

K. Danzmann and A. Rüdiger, Class. Quantum Grav. 20, S1, 2003.
[CrossRef]

G. Heinzel, V. Wand, A. Garcia, O. Jennrich, C. Braxmaier, D. Robertson, K. Middleton, D. Hoyland, A. Rüdiger, R. Schilling, U. Johann, and K. Danzmann, Class. Quantum Grav. 21, S581, 2004.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. Peral and A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1185, 1999.
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

M. Tröbs, S. Barke, J. Möbius, M. Engelbrecht, D. Kracht, L. d'Arcio, G. Heinzel, and K. Danzmann, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 154, 012016, 2009.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

W. Klipstein, P. G. Halverson, R. Peters, R. Cruz, and D. Shaddock, in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna: 6th International LISA Symposium, S.M.Merkowitz, ed. (AIP, 2006), Vol. 873, p. 312.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the differential phase-noise measurement setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured differential phase noise of fiber amplifier pumped (solid curve) and unpumped (dotted curve) along with phase meter sensitivity (dashed curve) and the effect of optical length noise (chain-dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Setup to measure amplifier length noise.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured backscattered power as function of amplifier output power.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured length noise and differential phase noise at 1 W and 2 W output power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Strongest Dependencies of Differential Phase Noise on Operating Parameters and Resulting Noise Requirements

Equations (2)

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Δ φ = 2 π f SB c Δ L ,
φ RQ ( f ) = 0.6 mrad Hz 1 + ( 2.8 mHz f ) 4 ,

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