Abstract

We demonstrate an optical fiber refractometer based on a cladding-mode Bragg grating. It consists of a long-period grating (LPG) followed by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The LPG partially couples light from the core mode to a cladding mode, both of which are reflected by the FBG. Part of the cladding mode reflection is coupled back to the core mode through the original LPG and used for refractive index sensing. The core mode reflection is used to compensate for the temperature cross sensitivity of the refractometer. The sensors operate in the reflection mode and can be multiplexed on a fiber in wavelength domain.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2008

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2001

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, and J. D. Love, Proc. SPIE 2836, 342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia and A. M. Vengsarkar, Opt. Lett. 21, 692 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahlfeldt, H.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Arregui, F. J.

Asseh, A.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

Bennion, I.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bentley, W. E.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

Chan, C. F.

Chen, C. K.

Chen, X.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, D. D.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Del Villar, I.

DeLisa, M. P.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X. Y.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dufva, M.

Ecke, W.

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwall, G.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hagemann, V.

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

He, Z. H.

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 2808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hewlett, S. J.

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, and J. D. Love, Proc. SPIE 2836, 342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Jafari, A.

James, S. W.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J. B.

Laffont, G.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laronche, A.

Liu, Y. Q.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, and J. D. Love, Proc. SPIE 2836, 342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Meltz, G.

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, and J. D. Love, Proc. SPIE 2836, 342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, L. H.

Pilevar, S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 2808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Rindorf, L.

Sahlgren, B.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandgren, S.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shiloach, M.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirkis, J. S.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolen, R. H.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 2808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stubbe, R.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Usbeck, K.

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

Wang, Y. P.

Wang, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Opt. Express 13, 2808 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, T.

Zhu, Y. N.

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

M. P. DeLisa, Z. Zhang, M. Shiloach, S. Pilevar, C. C. Davis, J. S. Sirkis, and W. E. Bentley, Anal. Chem. 72, 2895 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. H. He, Y. N. Zhu, and H. Du, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 044105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, and S. C. Mettler, Electron. Lett. 34, 1416 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, Electron. Lett. 36, 966 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Zhou, X. Chen, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, Electron. Lett. 40, 232 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fiber Integr. Opt.

A. Asseh, S. Sandgren, H. Ahlfeldt, B. Sahlgren, R. Stubbe, and G. Edwall, Fiber Integr. Opt. 17, 51 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. Laffont and P. Ferdinand, Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. James and R. P. Tatam, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. Meltz, S. J. Hewlett, and J. D. Love, Proc. SPIE 2836, 342 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Ecke, K. Usbeck, V. Hagemann, R. Mueller, and R. Willsch, Proc. SPIE 3555, 457 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) the cladding-mode Bragg grating and (b) its reflection spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectrum of the LPG, (b) reflection spectrum of the FBG, and (c) reflection spectrum of the CBG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Cladding-mode reflection spectra and (b) core-mode reflection spectra when the CBG is immersed into glycerol solutions of different concentrations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cladding-mode and core-mode wavelength difference versus RI change.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cladding-mode and core-mode wavelengths versus temperature.

Equations (2)

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λ c l = 2 n c l Λ ,
λ c o = 2 n c o Λ ,

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