Abstract

We have measured the average single-pulse longitudinal coherence characteristics of FLASH, a self amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser, at extreme UV wavelengths. Electric field autocorrelation measurements in the time domain were enabled by a wavefront division beam splitter applied to a tunable delay Mach–Zehnder interferometer. These data agree with the spectral bandwidth measurements made in the frequency domain. They exhibit two correlation time scales and the measured coherence curves have relevant implications for single-shot measurements.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
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2008 (3)

2007 (3)

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FLASH Collaboration, Nat. Photonics 1, 336 (2007).

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2006 (3)

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
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E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 030702 (2006).
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M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
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2003 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Yurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 51 (2002).
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1998 (1)

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Opt. Commun. 148, 383 (1998).
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1997 (1)

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
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F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
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Beye, M.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
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Carillon, A.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
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Cassou, K.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
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Cauble, R.

Celliers, P.

Chapman, H. N.

H. N. Chapman, Nature Mater. 8, 299 (2009).
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Chauvineau, J.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dasilva, L.

Delmotte, F.

Deppe, M.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doebrich, K.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
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Dunn, J.

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R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fajardo, M.

Feldhaus, J.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Föhlisch, A.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Follah, R.

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gahl, C.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
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Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

Guilbaud, O.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

Hennies, F.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
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Hoeft, J. T.

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
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Huang, Z.

Z. Huang and K.-J. Kim, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 034801 (2007).
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Hubert, S.

Hunter, J.

Jacquemot, S.

Jaegle, P.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joyeux, D.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Juranic, P.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazamias, S.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. -J.

Z. Huang and K.-J. Kim, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagron, J.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C.

Marmoret, R.

Martins, M.

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, A.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitzner, R.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moller, C.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J.

Nagasono, M.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neeb, M.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsen, J.

Noll, T.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phalippou, D.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pietzsch, A.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ravet, M.

Remond, C.

Richter, M.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roling, S.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ros, D.

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rutkowski, M.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saldin, E.

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 030702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Opt. Commun. 148, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 2000).

Schneidmiller, E.

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 030702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Opt. Commun. 148, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 2000).

Sebban, S.

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siemer, B.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siewert, F.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

Sorokin, A. A.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suljoti, E.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tiedtke, K.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanbostal, L.

Wan, A.

Weber, F.

Wellhöfer, M.

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wurth, W.

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yurkov, M.

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 030702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Opt. Commun. 148, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 2000).

Zacharias, H.

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Mitzner, B. Siemer, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, A. A. Sorokin, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, W. Eberhardt, and H. Zacharias, Opt. Express 16, 19909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

R. Smith, J. Dunn, J. Hunter, J. Nilsen, S. Hubert, S. Jacquemot, C. Remond, R. Marmoret, M. Fajardo, P. Zeitoun, L. Vanbostal, C. Lewis, M. Ravet, and F. Delmotte, Opt. Lett. 28, 2261 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

O. Guilbaud, A. Klisnick, D. Joyeux, D. Benredjem, K. Cassou, S. Kazamias, D. Ros, D. Phalippou, G. Jamelot, and C. Moller, Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

M. Wellhöfer, M. Martins, W. Wurth, A. A. Sorokin, and M. Richter, J. Opt. A 9, 749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

FLASH Collaboration, Nat. Photonics 1, 336 (2007).

Nature Mater. (1)

H. N. Chapman, Nature Mater. 8, 299 (2009).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

A. Pietzsch, A. Föhlisch, M. Beye, M. Deppe, F. Hennies, M. Nagasono, E. Suljoti, W. Wurth, C. Gahl, K. Doebrich, and A. Melnikov, New J. Phys. 10, 033004 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (1)

M. Yurkov, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 483, 51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. Albert, D. Joyeux, P. Jaegle, A. Carillon, J. Chauvineau, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, J. Lagron, D. Phalippou, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Zeitoun, Opt. Commun. 142, 184 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Opt. Commun. 148, 383 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. Mitzner, A. A. Sorokin, B. Siemer, S. Roling, M. Rutkowski, H. Zacharias, M. Neeb, T. Noll, F. Siewert, W. Eberhardt, M. Richter, P. Juranic, K. Tiedtke, and J. Feldhaus, Phys. Rev. A 80, 025402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams (2)

Z. Huang and K.-J. Kim, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 10, 034801 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 9, 030702 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. Martins, M. Wellhöfer, J. T. Hoeft, W. Wurth, J. Feldhaus, and R. Follah, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 115108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, and M. Yurkov, The Physics of Free Electron Lasers (Springer, 2000).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The radiation incidence angles are shown for each mirror. Moving transverse to the beam, the delay mirrors tune the duration between the two pulses. The recombination angle between the two pulses is 0.28 mrad as they coincidently illuminate a Ce:YAG fluorescence screen. Each resulting interference pattern is imaged with 8.0 μ m pixel resolution by a relay optical system and a CCD camera. (a) A characteristic background subtracted interference pattern. (b) The logarithm of the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform of (a) with the spatial cross correlation (XC) region and autocorrelation (AC) regions shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The normalized degree of coherence is plotted versus the delay, τ, which is reduced to units of wavelength. The narrower width for shorter λ = 9.6   nm data may be attributed to the specific tuning of the machine. Because the λ = 33.2   nm wavelength data do not extend to a vanishing degree of coherence, it can only provide a lower bound to the longitudinal coherence. The values of l c in the table were only extracted for the single bunch data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Five characteristic single-shot spectra show the variation in the bandwidth and mean photon energy. The red dashed curve is the average of 2600 single-shot measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between the autocorrelation (dashed curves) calculated from spectral measurements at λ = 33.2   nm using the Wiener–Khinchin theorem and the measured autocorrelation data recorded in the time domain as they appear in Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

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l c = + | γ ( l ) | 2 d l .
| A C ( τ ) ¯ | = | F [ 1 N i = 1 N spectrum i ] | .
| A C ( τ ) | ¯ = 1 N i = 1 N | F [ spectrum i ] | .

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