Abstract

We present measurements of morphological features in a thick turbid sample using light-scattering spectroscopy (LSS) and Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry (fLCI) by processing with the dual-window (DW) method. A parallel frequency domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a white-light source is used to image a two-layer phantom containing polystyrene beads of diameters 4.00 and 6.98μm on the top and bottom layers, respectively. The DW method decomposes each OCT A-scan into a time–frequency distribution with simultaneously high spectral and spatial resolution. The spectral information from localized regions in the sample is used to determine scatterer structure. The results show that the two scatterer populations can be differentiated using LSS and fLCI.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
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2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbas, A. K.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Robbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (Elsevier/Saunders, 2005).

Backman, V.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. J.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drexler, W.

Fausto, N.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Robbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (Elsevier/Saunders, 2005).

Feld, M. S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

U. Morganer, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, Opt. Lett. 25, 111 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, J.

Graf, R. N.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Itzkan, I.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kumar, V.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Robbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (Elsevier/Saunders, 2005).

Li, X.

Li, X. D.

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morganer, U.

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robles, F.

Robles, F. E.

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seiler, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terry, N.

Van Dam, J.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1957), pp. 173-199.

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

Yi, J.

Zhu, Y.

Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, Science 254, 1178 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1957), pp. 173-199.

V. Kumar, A. K. Abbas, and N. Fausto, Robbin and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (Elsevier/Saunders, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Parallel frequency-domain OCT image of a two-layer phantom. The top layer (optical path length difference/2 ( Δ OPL 2 ) ranging from 35 to 125 μ m ) contains 4.00 μ m beads, while the bottom layer ( 400 550 μ m ) contains 6.98 μ m beads. The dashed red line corresponds to a single lateral channel from which the TFD illustrated in Fig 2 is generated. (b) Overlay of the fLCI measurements with the OCT image. Scatterers without color coding correspond to points that produced nonunique size measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TFD using the DW method generated from a single representative lateral channel from the OCT image [dashed red line in Fig 1a]. (b) Corresponding A scan. Points 1 and 2 identify representative points of interest to be analyzed with LSS and fLCI.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(b) DW spectral profiles (blue curves) and low-pass filtered spectra (dotted green curves) from points 1 and 2 in Fig. 2b, respectively. Dashed red curves are the theoretical scattering cross sections for 3.97 and 6.91 μ m spherical scatterers for points 1 and 2, respectively, obtained by least-squares fitting the low-pass filtered spectrum. (c)–(d) Correlation function from points 1 and 2, with correlation distances ( d c ) of 4.25 and 6.87 μ m , respectively.

Equations (1)

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DW ( k , z ) = 2 E S cos ( κ 1 Δ OPL ) e ( κ 1 k ) 2 2 a 2 e i κ 1 z d κ 1 × ( 2 E s cos ( κ 2 Δ OPL ) e ( κ 2 k ) 2 2 b 2 e i κ 2 z ) * d κ 2 ,

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