Abstract

This study reports highly efficient light-absorbing structures based on submicrometer gratings (SMGs) for thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells. The integration of SMGs into the cell structure leads to superior broadband antireflection properties compared to conventional antireflection coatings. With careful design optimization, an improvement of the cell efficiency of nearly 25.1% was obtained compared to double-layer coated solar cells. Optimized SMG structures were fabricated on a silicon substrate using interference lithography and a lenslike shape transfer process. The fabricated SMG structures exhibited low reflectivity in the wavelength range of 300–1200 nm, indicating good agreement with the simulated results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. C. Striemer and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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1996

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bae, S. Y.

Bagnall, D. M.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boden, S. A.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chutinan, A.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovoltaics 16, 61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

C. C. Striemer and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N. N.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovoltaics 16, 61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hane, K.

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovoltaics 16, 61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. -Y.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Sasaki, and K. Hane, Opt. Lett. 24, 1422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kherani, N. P.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Liu, J.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, P. G.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schubert, E. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Striemer, C. C.

C. C. Striemer and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S. M.

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1981), Chap. 14.

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovoltaics 16, 61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zukotynski, S.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

P. G. O'Brien, N. P. Kherani, A. Chutinan, G. A. Ozin, S. John, and S. Zukotynski, Adv. Mater. 20, 1577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 133108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Striemer and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

N. N. Feng, J. Michel, L. Zeng, J. Liu, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, and X. Duan, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1926 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, Y. Kanamori, H. Yugami, and M. Yamaguchi, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 46, 3333 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

P. Lalanne and G. M. Morris, Proc. SPIE 2776, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, and W. Warta, Prog. Photovoltaics 16, 61 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, Y. Kanamori, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, and M. Yamaguchi, Prog. Photovoltaics 15, 415 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1981), Chap. 14.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated reflectance spectra of thin-film c -Si solar cells with the Al metallic backreflector for different surface structures. The inset shows schematic illustration of the thin-film silicon solar cell with SMGs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Contour plot of the variation of absorption efficiency as a function of period and wavelength for a 400 nm cone height. (b) Calculated cell efficiency of thin-film c -Si solar cells with SMGs versus the cone period for 2, 5, and 8 μ m cell thicknesses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contour map for the cell efficiency of the SMG integrated thin-film c -Si solar cells as a function of the cone period and height.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured and simulated reflectance as a function of wavelength for the bulk silicon and the fabricated silicon SMG structure. The inset shows the SEM image of the fabricated silicon SMG structures with 400 nm period and 400 nm height.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Cell efficiency of the 2 - μ m -thick c -Si solar cells with four different surface structures as a function of incident angle. The period and height of SMG structures are both 400 nm.

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