Abstract

By exploiting the concept of internal surface plasmon polariton (I-SPP) resonances, which appear at nonsingle metallic film stacks, we have designed a metamaterial showing a negative effective index within a large frequency bandwidth. The designed structure consists of an arrangement of several fishnet layers. By properly adjusting the lattice and the thickness of the dielectric slab of the fishnet, an I-SPP mode can be excited at a certain frequency, giving rise to a negative permeability. Thus, when combining several fishnet layers, each one configured to excite an I-SPP at a slightly different frequency, the coupling among the fishnet layers will cause a plasmon hybridization effect that enables us to extend the negative-index bandwidth.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 11155 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 11155 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandi, D. W.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Depine, R. A.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. G.

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

García-Meca, C.

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Go, H.

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grzegorczyk, T. M.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J. A.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Le, F.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, K.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Liu, H.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martí, J.

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martínez, A.

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortuño, R.

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. García-Meca, R. Ortuño, F. J. Rodriguez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Opt. Express 17, 6026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oubre, C.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, J.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radloff, C.

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez-Fortuño, F. J.

Rodríquez-Fortuño, F. J.

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F. M.

Wang, H.

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B. I.

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Li, H. Liu, F. M. Wang, Z. G. Dong, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 11155 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. N.

Adv. Mater. (2)

N. Liu, H. Go, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 19, 3628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, Adv. Mater. 20, 3589 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. A. Depine and A. Lakhtakia, Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 41, 315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. I. Stockman, Nano Lett. 4, 899 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, D. W. Brandi, F. Le, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, Nano Lett. 6, 827 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Urin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Ortuño, C. García-Meca, F. J. Rodríquez-Fortuño, J. Martí, and A. Martínez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075425 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

X. Chen, T. M. Grzegorczyk, B. I. Wu, J. Pacheco, and J. A. Kong, Phys. Rev. E 70, 016608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, Science 302, 419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the analyzed multilayer fishnet metamaterial and polarization configuration. The geometry parameters are: rectangular holes with dimensions h x = 280 nm and h y = 453.5 nm , lattice constant p x = p y = 650 nm , silver thickness t = 100 nm , and dielectric thicknesses of s 1 = 60 nm and s 2 = 50 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated (a) reflection and (b) transmission spectra of one, two, three, and four functional metamaterial layers. Curves are shifted upward for clarity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated electromagnetic field distributions at resonance (a) 1 a and (b) 1 b in the plane x = 0 . The electric and magnetic fields are represented by arrows and color scale, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved real components effective material parameters of (a) permeability and (b) refractive index (solid curves) along with FOM (dashed curves) of one, two, three, and four functional metamaterial layers. The black curve represents the case when s 1 = s 2 = 50 nm and four functional layers are considered. The DNG spectral extensions as a function of the functional layers are shown in color bars in (a).

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