Abstract

We report on remote and contactless photoacoustic imaging (PAI) for the inspection of solid materials using a two-wave mixing interferometer. In this Letter, a semitransparent sample was excited with picosecond laser pulses. The local absorption of the electromagnetic radiation led to generation of broadband ultrasonic waves inside the sample. Ultrasonic waves arriving at the sample surface were detected utilizing a two-wave mixing interferometer. After data acquisition, the initial pressure distribution was reconstructed using a Fourier space synthetic aperture technique algorithm. We show the potential of PAI for the inspection of semitransparent solid materials.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Carp and V. Venugopalan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Appl. Opt. 46, 3352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

N. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1996

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

L. J. Busse, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39, 174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1880

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Bauer-Marschallinger, J.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beard, P. C.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bebie, H.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Berer, T.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blouin, A.

Blum, T. E.

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgholzer, P.

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Appl. Opt. 46, 3352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busse, L. J.

L. J. Busse, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39, 174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carp, S. A.

S. A. Carp and V. Venugopalan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dieulesaint, E.

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids I (Springer, 2000).

Drolet, D.

Frenz, M.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grün, H.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haltmeier, M.

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Appl. Opt. 46, 3352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ing, R.

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Köstli, K. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnaswamy, S.

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, J. G.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lévesque, D.

Mikic, B. B.

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monchalin, J.-P.

Néron, C.

Nishioka, N. S.

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuster, R.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Appl. Opt. 46, 3352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paltauf, G.

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Paltauf, R. Nuster, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Appl. Opt. 46, 3352 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Payne, B. P.

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedley, R. P.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pouet, B.

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roitner, H.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Royer, D.

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids I (Springer, 2000).

van Wijk, K.

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

S. A. Carp and V. Venugopalan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. V.

N. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wartelle, A.

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, N.

N. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, E. Z.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Sci.

A. G. Bell, Am. J. Sci. 20, 305 (1880).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Pouet, R. Ing, S. Krishnaswamy, and D. Royer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

L. J. Busse, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 39, 174 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inverse Prob.

P. Burgholzer, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, H. Grün, M. Haltmeier, and G. Paltauf, Inverse Prob. 23, S65 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. Grün, T. Berer, R. Nuster, G. Paltauf, and P. Burgholzer, J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 021306 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. P. Payne, V. Venugopalan, B. B. Mikic, and N. S. Nishioka, J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 273 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Carp and V. Venugopalan, J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 064001 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser.

P. Burgholzer, T. Berer, H. Grün, H. Roitner, J. Bauer-Marschallinger, R. Nuster, and G. Paltauf, J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 214, 012009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon.

L. Wang, Nat. Photon. 3, 503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Med. Biol.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 1863 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. P. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 1035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

H. Grün, G. Paltauf, M. Haltmeier, and P. Burgholzer, Proc. SPIE 6631, 663107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. E. Blum, K. van Wijk, B. Pouet, and A. Wartelle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Xu and L. V. Wang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 041101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Royer and E. Dieulesaint, Elastic Waves in Solids I (Springer, 2000).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the measurement setup: L1–L4, lenses; M1–M2, mirrors; BE, beam expander; HW1, half-wave plate; QW, quarter-wave plate; PBS1–PBS2, polarizing beam splitters; OD, optical density plate; PRC, photorefractive crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the sample and (b) photograph from the back side of the sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Curve (I): typical measurement taken with the PRC interferometer. Curve (II): time derivative of the measurement data after filtering. L1, T1, and L2 denote the longitudinal, transversal, and reflected longitudinal waves, respectively. (b) F-SAFT reconstruction using the longitudinal speed of sound. (c) F-SAFT reconstruction using the transversal speed of sound. The artifact at the bottom part of the image is due to a surface acoustic wave, which arrives at the same time as the transversal wave. (d) Photograph of the inspected region at the back of the sample (area 20 mm × 23 mm ).

Equations (2)

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p = ρ 0 · c · v .
p = ρ 0 a 2 2 z · v ˙ .

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