Abstract

Optical fibers are commonly inserted into living tissues such as the brain in order to deliver light to deep targets for neuroscientific and neuroengineering applications such as optogenetics, in which light is used to activate or silence neurons expressing specific photosensitive proteins. However, an optical fiber is limited to delivering light to a single target within the three-dimensional structure of the brain. We here demonstrate a multiwaveguide probe capable of independently delivering light to multiple targets along the probe axis, thus enabling versatile optical control of sets of distributed brain targets. The 1.45-cm-long probe is microfabricated in the form of a 360-μm-wide array of 12 parallel silicon oxynitride (SiON) multimode waveguides clad with SiO2 and coated with aluminum; probes of custom dimensions are easily created as well. The waveguide array accepts light from a set of sources at the input end and guides the light down each waveguide to an aluminum corner mirror that efficiently deflects light away from the probe axis. Light losses at each stage are small (input coupling loss, 0.4±0.3dB; bend loss, negligible; propagation loss, 3.1±1dB/cm using the outscattering method and 3.2±0.4dB/cm using the cutback method; corner mirror loss, 1.5±0.4dB); a waveguide coupled, for example, to a 5mW source will deliver over 1.5mW to a target at a depth of 1cm.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. Han and E. S. Boyden, PLoS ONE 2, e299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qian, S. Kim, J. Song, and G. P. Nordin, Opt. Express 14, 6020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

T. Barwicz and H. A. Haus, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2719 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Worhoff, P. V. Lambek, and A. Driessen, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Subramaniam, G. N. DeBrabander, D. H. Naghski, and J. T. Boyd, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983

Albers, H.

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bamberg, E.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barwicz, T.

Belfort, G. M.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernstein, J. G.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouzaida, N.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, J. T.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. DeBrabander, D. H. Naghski, and J. T. Boyd, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyden, E. S.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han and E. S. Boyden, PLoS ONE 2, e299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brauner, M.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bronson, R. T.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassan, E.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. T.

A. L. Zhang and K. T. Chan, in Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vols. 124–127, p. 296.

Chow, B. Y.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuong, A. S.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Ridder, M.

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeBrabander, G. N.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. DeBrabander, D. H. Naghski, and J. T. Boyd, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deisseroth, K.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desimone, R.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobry, A. S.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Driessen, A.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Worhoff, P. V. Lambek, and A. Driessen, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franzesi, G. T.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gottschalk, A.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graybiel, A. M.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han and E. S. Boyden, PLoS ONE 2, e299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H. A.

Heitzmann, M.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henninger, M. A.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilderink, L. T. H.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, M.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kay, K.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

Koos, C.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kopka, P.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P. V.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lambek, P. V.

Lardenois, S.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liewald, J. F.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linders, P. W. C.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mollard, L.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monahan, P. E.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagel, G.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naghski, D. H.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. DeBrabander, D. H. Naghski, and J. T. Boyd, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Okamura, Y.

Orobtchouk, R.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascal, D.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfrang, A.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Popma, T. J. A.

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C. G.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, X.

B. Y. Chow, X. Han, A. S. Dobry, X. Qian, A. S. Chuong, M. Li, M. A. Henninger, G. M. Belfort, Y. Lin, P. E. Monahan, and E. S. Boyden, Nature 463, 98 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, Y.

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, in IEEE Colloquium on Measurements on Optical Devices (IEEE, 1992), pp. 2/1–2/7.

Renee, K. W.

K. W. Renee, M. de Ridder, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, and H. Albers, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 930 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schimmel, T.

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Stern, P.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, V.

V. Subramaniam, G. N. DeBrabander, D. H. Naghski, and J. T. Boyd, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 990 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, Opt Lett. 28, 1150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voges, E.

M. Hoffmann, P. Kopka, and E. Voges, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 1238 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. P.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watzke, N.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, P. G.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worhoff, K.

K. Worhoff, P. V. Lambek, and A. Driessen, J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1401 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Worhoff, A. Driessen, P. V. Lambeck, L. T. H. Hilderink, P. W. C. Linders, and T. J. A. Popma, Sens. Actuators A 74, 9 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yoshinaka, S.

Zhang, A. L.

A. L. Zhang and K. T. Chan, in Proceedings of the Sixth Chinese Optoelectronics Symposium (IEEE, 2003), Vols. 124–127, p. 296.

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, L. P. Wang, M. Brauner, J. F. Liewald, K. Kay, N. Watzke, P. G. Wood, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, A. Gottschalk, and K. Deisseroth, Nature 446, 633 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Boyden, F. Zhang, E. Bamberg, G. Nagel, and K. Deisseroth, Nat. Neurosci. 8, 1263 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, H. H.

X. Han, X. Qian, J. G. Bernstein, H. H. Zhou, G. T. Franzesi, P. Stern, R. T. Bronson, A. M. Graybiel, R. Desimone, and E. S. Boyden, Neuron 62, 191 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design and fabrication of a multiwaveguide probe capable of independent light delivery to multiple targets along the probe axis. (a) Schematic of an example waveguide probe, 360 μ m wide, and containing 12 waveguides, with inputs, bends, shanks, and corner mirrors labeled. (b) Photomicrograph of a waveguide probe fabricated according to the design in (a), with light coupled into 3 of the 12 waveguides and immersed in a scattering medium, showing emission of 473 nm and 632 nm light out three separate ports. (c) Cross section of a single waveguide, taken through the shank section of the probe. (d) SEM of a single waveguide, for the cross section shown in (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of multiwaveguide probe performance for a geometry appropriate for multisite neural target illumination. (a) Outscattering measured propagation loss for the input and shank sections of a representative guide. Shown is also the average linear fit for 20 waveguides (straight line). (b) Cutback characterization of loss at different points along four waveguides on different probes; different symbols indicate raw data taken from different waveguides. Shown is also the average multipart linear fit for four waveguides (straight lines).

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