Abstract

We demonstrate enhancement by 1 order of magnitude of the high-order harmonics generated in argon by combining a fundamental field at 1300nm (1014Wcm2) and its orthogonally polarized second harmonic at 650nm (2×1013Wcm2) and by controlling the relative phase between them. This extends earlier work by ensuring that the main effect is the combined field steering the electron trajectory with negligible contribution from multiphoton effects compared to the previous schemes with 800/400nm fields. We access a broad energy range of harmonics (from 20eV to 80eV) at a low laser intensity (far below the ionization saturation limit) and observe deep modulation of the harmonic yield with a period of π in the relative phase. Strong field theoretical analysis reveals that this is principally due to the steering of the recolliding electron wave packet by the two-color field. Our modeling also shows that the atto chirp can be controlled, leading to production of shorter pulses.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (4)

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, M. Negro, G. Sansone, F. Frassetto, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, M. Nisoli, S. D. Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Opt. Lett. 34, 3125 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos,Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

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P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nature Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Milošević and W. Becker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417(2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

B. Shan and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
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Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

D. Milošević and W. Becker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417(2002).
[CrossRef]

Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

Brugnera, L.

Calegari, F.

Catoire, F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

Chirla, R.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. J.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colosimo, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nature Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMauro, L. F.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Doumy, G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Dudovich, N.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frassetto, F.

Hauri, C.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D. J.

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. M.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. T.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I. J.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nature Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. H.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, T. T.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

March, A. M.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Miloševic, D.

D. Milošević and W. Becker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417(2002).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. H.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Negro, M.

Nisoli, M.

Park, J. Y.

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

Procino, I.

Robinson, J. S.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos,Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sekikawa, T.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shafir, D.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shan, B.

B. Shan and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, T.

Silvestri, S. D.

Springate, E.

Stagira, S.

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos,Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, R.

Turcu, I. C. E.

Underwood, J. G.

Villeneuve, D. M.

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

Vozzi, C.

Watanabe, S.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wheeler, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zar, A.

Zeng, Z.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zou, P.

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Nat. Phys. 4, 386(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Physics (1)

D. Shafir, Y. Mairesse, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and N. Dudovich, Nat. Physics 5, 412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, Nature Phys. 3, 381 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

D. Milošević and W. Becker, Phys. Rev. A 66, 063417(2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan and Z. Chang, Phys. Rev. A 65, 011804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos,Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063003 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Kim, C. M. Kim, H. T. Kim, G. H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, J. Y. Park, D. J. Cho, and C. H. Nam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, P. Zou, L. Zhang, X. Li, P. Liu, R. Li, and Z. Xu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 043904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Harmonic spectra produced by fundamental beam alone (dotted curve) and combined with its second harmonic for the relative phases that gave maximum (blue) and minimum (red) harmonic signal. Inset, experimental setup. L, lens; FS, fused-silica plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of harmonic spectra calculated with SFA for ϕ = 0 , π / 3 , and π / 2 as a function of the harmonic order for a driving intensity of 1.5 × 10 14 W cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Yield as a function of the harmonic order for ϕ = 0 (blue) and ϕ = π / 3 (red). (a) Only the complex exponential is shown. (b) Only the slow term is used to calculate the harmonic response.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Harmonic order as a function of the travelling time of the electron in the continuum for ϕ = 0 (blue), ϕ = π / 3 (red), and for the single-color case (black dashed). Solid lines represent a linear fit between the 30th and the 70th harmonic.

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