Abstract

A method of tuning a one-dimensional guided-mode resonance grating through the use of an air-pressure-responsive membrane is demonstrated here using finite-element method simulation. The device consists of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) grating structure embedded in a flexible polydimethylsiloxane membrane. This grating has a resonant response to TM-polarized light at a wavelength dependent upon the refractive index of the surrounding medium. By varying the pressure by 5500Pa, lateral strain may be applied to the grating; this allows resonances to be produced for medium refractive indices ranging from 1.33 to 1.50 for a fixed-wavelength 850nm light source.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Lee, C. F. Huang, J. Y. Chang, and M. L. Wu, Opt. Express 16, 7969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Dobbs, I. Gershkovich, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 120, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, Proc. SPIE 3911, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022(1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1965 (1)

Bagby, J. S.

Beatty, P. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergveld, P.

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Block, I. D.

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 120, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, L. L.

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 120, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. Y.

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, C. J.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunnigham, B. T.

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, B. T.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Dobbs, I. Gershkovich, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 120, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, D.

D. Dobbs, I. Gershkovich, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Foley, J. E.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gershkovich, I.

D. Dobbs, I. Gershkovich, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hessel, A.

Huang, C. F.

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, K.

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, W. P.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. C.

Li, P.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B.

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, Proc. SPIE 3911, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. S.

Lötters, J. C.

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Maegawa, N.

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, R.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M. M.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, A.

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moharam, M. G.

Oliner, A. A.

Olthuis, W.

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, J.

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pineda, M. F.

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Privorotskaya, N. L.

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rife, J. C.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheehan, P. E.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D.

Tamanaha, C. R.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tibuleac, S.

D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, Proc. SPIE 3911, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tondra, M.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, H.

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veltink, P. H.

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. S.

Wawro, D.

D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, Proc. SPIE 3911, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, L. J.

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. L.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Dobbs, I. Gershkovich, and B. T. Cunningham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Magnusson and S. S. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1022(1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, J. E. Foley, P. R. Beatty, P. Li, B. T. Cunningham, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1712 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

I. D. Block, M. F. Pineda, C. J. Choi, and B. T. Cunningham, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1546 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. C. Lötters, W. Olthuis, P. H. Veltink, and P. Bergveld, J. Micromech. Microeng. 7, 145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

D. Wawro, S. Tibuleac, R. Magnusson, and H. Liu, Proc. SPIE 3911, 86 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuta, N. Maegawa, A. Mizutani, K. Iwata, and H. Toyota, Proc. SPIE 4416, 219 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (2)

J. C. Rife, M. M. Miller, P. E. Sheehan, C. R. Tamanaha, M. Tondra, and L. J. Whitman, Sens. Actuators A 107, 209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Privorotskaya, C. J. Choi, B. T. Cunningham, and W. P. King, Sens. Actuators A 161, 66 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

I. D. Block, L. L. Chan, and B. T. Cunningham, Sens. Actuators B 120, 187 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunnigham, P. Li, B. Lin, and J. Pepper, Sens. Actuators B 81, 316 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. T. Cunningham, J. Qiu, P. Li, and B. Lin, Sens. Actuators B 87, 365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the tunable GMR device. Initial parameters used for simulation are Λ = 546 nm , w = 280 nm , t = 160 nm , n PDMS = 1.406 , n TiO 2 = 2.3 , and n Medium = 1.33 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

COMSOL 3.5a simulation results showing reflectivity versus (a) grating pitch, for various refractive indices of the medium, and (b) refractive index of the medium, for various grating pitches at a wavelength of 850 nm .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Resonance peak locations in terms of grating pitch and refractive index of the medium for both theoretical and simulation results.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Overlapping channel structures. (b) Mechanical simulation model; only the overlapping regions of the channels (without backing) and membrane were included in this model. (c) Close-up of the grating region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Lateral displacement along the width of the grating. (b) Effective strain acting on the grating as a function of pressure, and its corresponding pitch.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

COMSOL simulation results showing (a) reflectivity versus pressure for various medium refractive indices, and (b) the location of the resonance peak for varying medium refractive index and pressure.

Equations (1)

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tan ( κ i t ) = n g 2 κ i ( n Medium 2 γ i + n Substrate 2 δ i ) n Substrate 2 n Medium 2 κ i 2 n g 4 γ i δ i ,

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