Abstract

Single-crystal aluminum–gallium oxide films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the corundum phase. Films of the (Al1xGax)2O3 alloys doped with neodymium have favorable properties for solid-state waveguide lasers, including a high-thermal-conductivity sapphire substrate and a dominant emission peak in the 10901096nm wavelength range. The peak position is linearly correlated to the unit cell volume, which is dependent on film composition and stress. Varying the Ga–Al alloy composition during growth will enable the fabrication of graded-index layers for tunable lasing wavelengths and low scattering losses at the interfaces.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009

2008

2007

J. Mackenzie, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau and Y. E. Romanyuk, C. R. Physique 8, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1998

1967

M. Marezio and J. P. Remeika, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1862(1967).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

Bartolo, B. D.

Boughton, R. I.

Ding, Z.

X. Tang, Z. Ding, and Z. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter (2007), pp. 66–69.
[PubMed]

Equall, R. W.

Hutcheson, R. L.

Jiang, M.

Kumaran, R.

Li, W.

Mackenzie, J.

J. Mackenzie, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marezio, M.

M. Marezio and J. P. Remeika, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1862(1967).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

R. Moncorgé, in Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005), pp. 320–378.
[CrossRef]

Penson, S.

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau and Y. E. Romanyuk, C. R. Physique 8, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remeika, J. P.

M. Marezio and J. P. Remeika, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1862(1967).
[CrossRef]

Romanyuk, Y. E.

M. Pollnau and Y. E. Romanyuk, C. R. Physique 8, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schiettekatte, F.

Tang, X.

X. Tang, Z. Ding, and Z. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter (2007), pp. 66–69.
[PubMed]

Tiedje, T.

Walsh, B. M.

Wang, J.

Wang, Z.

Webster, S.

R. Kumaran, S. Webster, S. Penson, W. Li, and T. Tiedje, J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2191 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S. E.

Wei, P.

Xia, H.

Yu, H.

Yu, Y.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, Z.

X. Tang, Z. Ding, and Z. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter (2007), pp. 66–69.
[PubMed]

C. R. Physique

M. Pollnau and Y. E. Romanyuk, C. R. Physique 8, 123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Mackenzie, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

M. Marezio and J. P. Remeika, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1862(1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

R. Kumaran, S. Webster, S. Penson, W. Li, and T. Tiedje, J. Cryst. Growth 311, 2191 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

R. Moncorgé, in Spectroscopic Properties of Rare Earths in Optical Materials (Springer, 2005), pp. 320–378.
[CrossRef]

X. Tang, Z. Ding, and Z. Zhang, in Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on Luminescence and Optical Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter (2007), pp. 66–69.
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

High-resolution x-ray diffraction from a 120-nm-thick Nd : α - Ga 2 O 3 film grown on A-plane sapphire: (a) θ 2 θ scan showing that the film is single phase. (b) ϕ rotation scans showing that the in-plane orientation of the film matches the substrate. ϕ scans involve detecting off-axis peaks while the sample is rotated about its normal. (c) Reciprocal space map indicating slight mosaicity as shown by the broad film peak. Q x and Q y refer to the in-plane and out-of-plane directions, respectively, and have units of inverse interplanar spacings.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Product of emission cross section σ and lifetime τ for Nd-doped α - Ga 2 O 3 and α - Al 2 O 3 films grown on A-plane sapphire. σ · τ , which is proportional to optical gain, is calculated from the emission spectra using Eq. (1). The spectra are due to Nd 3 + transitions from the F 3 / 2 4 manifold to the I 9 / 2 4 , I 11 / 2 4 , and I 13 / 2 4 manifolds, respectively. Inset, a magnified plot of normalized σ · τ for emission-polarized ∥ optic axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reciprocal space map showing the off-axis (300) peaks for Nd-doped α - ( Al 1 x Ga x ) 2 O 3 films grown on A-plane sapphire. Film thicknesses range from 85 to 165 nm . Varying the composition results in the transition of film peaks from α - Ga 2 O 3 to α - Al 2 O 3 in Q x and Q y , which are the inverse interplanar spacings along the [ 1 1 ¯ 0 ] (in-plane) and [ 110 ] (out-of-plane) directions, respectively. Al-rich films deviate from the expected linear trend, indicating that the films are compressively strained in-plane to match the substrate instead of being fully relaxed. Inset, the composition dependence of the strong emission peak (normalized).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of composition and unit cell volume of Nd-doped α - ( Al 1 x Ga x ) 2 O 3 films on emission peak wavelength. Inset, the hexagonal crystal structure of corundum (unit cell in red) showing the orientations of the x, z (in-plane), and y (out-of-plane) directions with respect to the crystal unit cell.

Equations (1)

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σ pol ( λ ) · τ = 3 λ 5 I pol ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 [ { I ( λ ) + 2 I ( λ ) } λ d λ ] 1 ,

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