Abstract

Free-carrier absorption (FCA) has proven to be an important obstacle in the development of a silicon-based laser; however, FCA may serve as a potential advantage in active silicon-based switches or modulators. In this work, we present FCA modulation in slot waveguides with silicon nanocrystals (Si-ncs) embedded in SiO2 as the low-index slot material. Slot waveguides were fabricated with and without Si-ncs, and the presence of Si-ncs was shown to increase the pump-induced FCA loss in the waveguides by a factor of 4.5. We modeled the Si-nc material using a four-level rate equation analysis to estimate the excited population of Si-ncs, allowing us to extract a value of 2.6×1017cm2 for the FCA cross section of the Si-nc material.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (2)

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchena, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 35, 2182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, Opt. Express 16, 16659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, Opt. Lett. 29, 1209 (2004).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Arbiol, J.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bonafos, C.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

Carreras, J.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzanelli, M.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchena, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 35, 2182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dominguez, C.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

Franzo, G.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourbilleau, F.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kekatpure, R. D.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchena, E.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchena, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 35, 2182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoleni, C.

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montserrat, J.

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavesi, L.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitanti, A.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

E. Marchena, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 35, 2182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Priole, F.

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priolo, F.

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pucker, G.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Redding, B.

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Marchena, B. Redding, T. Creazzo, and D. W. Prather, Opt. Lett. 35, 2182 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizk, R.

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, G. Pucker, and L. Pavesi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 051101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 143109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Lumin. (1)

T. Creazzo, B. Redding, E. Marchena, J. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, J. Lumin. 130, 631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Carreras, C. Bonafos, J. Montserrat, C. Dominguez, J. Arbiol, and B. Garrido, Nanotechnology 19 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

L. Pavesi, L. D. Negro, C. Mazzoleni, G. Franzo, and F. Priole, Nature 408, 440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, Nature 427, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. E (1)

L. Dal Negro, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Priolo, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, and F. Iacona, Phys. E 16, 297 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modulation of the 1550 nm probe signal due to pump-induced FCA loss. The intensity of the probe signal decreases whenever the pump is on. The modulation depth increases with pump power due to an increase in FCA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Loss in the slot waveguide structure with Si-ncs (circles) and SiO 2 (squares) as the slot materials. The dotted curve represents the difference, and the solid curves are guides for the eyes. Inset, SEM image of the Si-nc slot waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled loss (solid curve) was fit to the measured loss (circles) with a value of 2.6 × 10 17 cm 2 for the FCA cross section. Inset, population curve generated using the model (solid curve) and position on the curve based on experimental pump power (circles).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N ˙ 0 = σ abs Φ p N 0 + N 1 τ 1 ,
N ˙ 1 = N 1 τ 1 + N 2 τ 2 + C N 2 2 ,
N ˙ 2 = N 2 τ 2 + N 3 τ 3 2 C N 2 2 ,
N ˙ 3 = σ abs Φ p N 0 N 3 τ 3 + C N 2 2 ,

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