Abstract

We propose an all-optical hybrid network composed of optical code division multiple access (CDMA) rings interconnecting through a reconfigurable wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) metro area ring. This network retains the advantages of both the optical CDMA and WDM techniques, including asynchronous access and differentiated quality of service, while removing the hard limit on the number of subscribers and increasing network flexibility. The all-optical network is enabled by using nonlinear optical loop mirrors in an add/drop router (ADR) that performs code conversion, dropping, and switching asynchronously. We experimentally demonstrate the functionalities of the ADR in the proposed scheme asynchronously and obtain error-free performance. The bit-error rate measurements show acceptable power penalties for different code routes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Deng, Z. Wang, K. Kravtsov, J. Chang, C. Hartzell, M. P. Fok, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2, 159 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Kitayama, X. Wang, and N. Wada, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1654 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Huang, M. H. M. Nizam, I. Andonovic, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 765 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.
  8. C.-S. Brès and P. R. Prucnal, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2911 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Kravtsov, P. R. Prucnal, and M. M. Bubnov, Opt. Express 15, 13114 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. A. Cooperson, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NThK3.
  11. L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1281 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

2010 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Huang, M. H. M. Nizam, I. Andonovic, and M. Tur, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 765 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andonovic, I.

Banwell, T.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Brès, C. S.

C. S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brès, C.-S.

Bubnov, M. M.

Chang, J.

Chen, L. R.

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cooperson, D. A.

D. A. Cooperson, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NThK3.

Deng, Y.

Etemad, S.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Fok, M. P.

Galli, S.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Glesk, I.

C. S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartzell, C.

Huang, W.

Huang, Y.-K.

Ibsen, M.

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Kitayama, K.

Kravtsov, K.

Kwong, W. C.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

Menendez, R.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Nizam, M. H. M.

Prucnal, P. R.

Richardson, D. J.

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Runser, R. J.

C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Teh, P. C.

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toliver, P.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

Tur, M.

Wada, N.

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Yang, G.-C.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

Young, J.

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

C. S. Brès, I. Glesk, R. J. Runser, and P. R. Prucnal, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 17, 1088 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Teh, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15, 482 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Chen and P. W. E. Smith, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1281 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Other (3)

S. Galli, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, in Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications (IEEE, 2004), pp. 1888-1894.

D. A. Cooperson, Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper NThK3.

G.-C. Yang and W. C. Kwong, Prime Codes With Applications to CDMA Optical and Wireless Networks (Artech House, 2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed scheme with optical CDMA ring networks interconnecting through a WDM ring network and the detailed configuration of the nonlinear optical loop mirror modules in an optical CDMA ADM and ADR.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup of the WDM ROADMs with optical CDMA ADRs. The dashed lines along the ROADMs are the optical CDMA code routes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Eye diagrams at different points in the network when one optical CDMA signal is added at ROAMD1 and one at ROAMD2. (a) Encoded optical CDMA signal. (b) Decoded signal in ADR2. (c) Autocorrelation peaks at the transmission port of NOLM in ADR2. (d) Residual autocorrelation peaks at the reflection port in ADR2. (e) Combined add signal and residual signal in ADR2. (f) Decoded signal in ADR3. (g) Autocorrelation peaks at the transmission port of NOLM in ADR3. (h) Residual signal at the reflection port in ADR3.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Eye diagrams at different points in the network when two optical CDMA signals are added at ROADM1. (a) Decoded optical CDMA signals in ADR2. (b) Dropped signal at the transmission port in ADR2. (c) Signal at the reflection port before restoration in ADR2. (d) Signal after restoration. (e) Received and decoded signal in ADR3. (f) Dropped signal at the transmission port in ADR3. (g) Residual signal at the reflection port in ADR3. (h) Code converted signal from transmission port in ADR2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

BER measurements of the network for different signals and routes.

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