Abstract

We present a type of diffractive lens, Zernike apodized photon sieves (ZAPS), used as the objective for high spatial resolution and high phase-contrast imaging of weakly absorbing materials in x rays. The structure of ZAPS is based on the combination of two concepts: apodized photon sieves and Zernike phase contrast. The ZAPS is a single optic that integrates the appropriate ±π/2rad phase shift through selective zone placement shifts in an apodized photon sieve. Analysis of the focusing properties of the apodized photon sieve in terms of point-spread function show that the sidelobes have been significantly suppressed at the expense of slightly widening the width of the main lobe. In combination with synchrotron light sources, ZAPS offers new opportunities for high-resolution phase-contrast x-ray microscopy in the physical and life sciences.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2006

C. Chang, A. Sakdinawat, P. Fischer, E. Anderson, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 31, 1564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2002

2001

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, G.

Anderson, E.

Anderson, E. H.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D.

Attwood, D. T.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
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Barbastathis, G.

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

Cao, Q.

Chang, C.

Chao, W.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, T. Xing, Y. Yang, and J. Ma, Proc. SPIE 6832, 83229 (2008).

Cojoc, D.

Davis, T. J.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

Facci, P.

Fischer, P.

C. Chang, A. Sakdinawat, P. Fischer, E. Anderson, and D. Attwood, Opt. Lett. 31, 1564 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, D.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gil, D.

Gureyev, T. E.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harteneck, B. D.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahns, J.

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaulich, B.

Kim, D.-H.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liddle, J. A.

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Ma, J.

G. Cheng, T. Xing, Y. Yang, and J. Ma, Proc. SPIE 6832, 83229 (2008).

Menon, R.

Sakdinawat, A.

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, H.

Stevenson, A. W.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Susini, J.

Wilhein, T.

Wilkins, S. W.

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xing, T.

G. Cheng, T. Xing, Y. Yang, and J. Ma, Proc. SPIE 6832, 83229 (2008).

Yang, Y.

G. Cheng, T. Xing, Y. Yang, and J. Ma, Proc. SPIE 6832, 83229 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Mater. Today

P. Fischer, D.-H. Kim, W. Chao, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Mater. Today 9, 26 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. J. Davis, D. Gao, T. E. Gureyev, A. W. Stevenson, and S. W. Wilkins, Nature 373, 595 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, Nature 435, 1210 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

G. Cheng, T. Xing, Y. Yang, and J. Ma, Proc. SPIE 6832, 83229 (2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Modification of an apodized photon sieve to a Zernike apodized photon sieve involves multiplying by a phase filter with shape and area corresponding to the undiffracted on-axis illumination used in the imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of calculated intensity distributions of photon sieves and zone plates with different apodization windows. (a) Transmission windows in pupil plane for a zone plate (solid horizontal line) with a rectangular apodization window and two different photon sieves with Gaussian apodization window: σ = 1 (dashed curve), σ = 0.5 (solid curve with filled circles), respectively. (b) Transverse intensity PSF distribution in focal plane for the corresponding zone plates and photon sieves.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pinhole distribution of the central area of an apodized x-ray photon sieve.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of the central area of an apodized photon sieve. (b) Resolution test target imaged with an apodized photon sieve at 627 nm .

Equations (4)

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U K J 1 ( 0.5 π K ) ,
P ( r ) ZAPS = P ( r ) PS G ( r ) F ( r ) ,
F ( r ) = exp ( ± j π / 2 ) , ( r in r r out ) ,
G ( r ) = exp ( 0.5 r 2 / σ 2 ) ,

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