Abstract

We demonstrate an ultralow sample volume optical carbon monoxide sensor with detection sensitivity of 180parts in 109 (1σ at 1Hz). The utilization of a 2.3μm surface-emitting laser directly coupled to a 3m hollow capillary fiber as the gas cell is proven to be a compact, sensitive, and cost-efficient gas sensing concept. By mechanical vibration of the fiber, an absorbance resolution of 105 is achieved, which is comparable to single-reflective (double-pass) cells. An improvement of sensitivity over the conventional single-reflective cell is thus approximately linearly scaled with the enhancement of the optical path length, which is usually more than 1 order of magnitude.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, Opt. Eng. 37, 2454(1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. A. Worrell and N. A. Gallen, J. Phys. D 30, 1984 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Opt. 49, 5254 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Dautzenberg, presented at Conference: Communicating Health, the Tobacco Example, Brussels, 9 October 2008.

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. Hartwig and A. Lambrecht, Technisches Messen 75, 555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, Opt. Eng. 37, 2454(1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. A. Worrell and N. A. Gallen, J. Phys. D 30, 1984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

1942 (1)

Amann, M.-C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Opt. 49, 5254 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
[PubMed]

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

Arnone, D.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, A.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, G.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Opt. 49, 5254 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
[PubMed]

Dautzenberg, B.

B. Dautzenberg, presented at Conference: Communicating Health, the Tobacco Example, Brussels, 9 October 2008.

Day, T.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dier, O.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleischer, M.

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

Gallen, N. A.

C. A. Worrell and N. A. Gallen, J. Phys. D 30, 1984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, D.

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Grau, M.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Opt. 49, 5254 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
[PubMed]

Harrington, J. A.

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, Opt. Eng. 37, 2454(1998).
[CrossRef]

Hartwig, S.

S. Hartwig and A. Lambrecht, Technisches Messen 75, 555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herriott, D.

Kashani-Shirazi, K.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kebabian, P. L.

Kim, S.-S.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Lambrecht, A.

S. Hartwig and A. Lambrecht, Technisches Messen 75, 555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lauer, C.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T.

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luzinova, Y.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McManus, J. B.

Mizaikoff, B.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muecke, R.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nubling, R. K.

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, Opt. Eng. 37, 2454(1998).
[CrossRef]

Ortsiefer, M.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabii, C.

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rönneberg, E.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, Appl. Opt. 49, 5254 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
[PubMed]

Takeuchi, E.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weida, M.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

White, J. U.

Windhorn, K.

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Worrell, C. A.

C. A. Worrell and N. A. Gallen, J. Phys. D 30, 1984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Young, C.

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zahniser, M. S.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

P. Werle, R. Muecke, and F. Slemr, Appl. Phys. B 57, 131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B (to be published).
[PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Ortsiefer, G. Böhm, M. Grau, K. Windhorn, E. Rönneberg, J. Rosskopf, R. Shau, O. Dier, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 42, 640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, and M.-C. Amann, Electron. Lett. 44, 202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. A. Harrington, C. Rabii, and D. Gibson, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 948 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

C. A. Worrell and N. A. Gallen, J. Phys. D 30, 1984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. K. Nubling and J. A. Harrington, Opt. Eng. 37, 2454(1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

C. Young, S.-S. Kim, Y. Luzinova, M. Weida, D. Arnone, E. Takeuchi, T. Day, and B. Mizaikoff, Sens. Actuators B 140, 24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Technisches Messen (1)

S. Hartwig and A. Lambrecht, Technisches Messen 75, 555 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Hangauer, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, M. Fleischer, and M.-C. Amann, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics(Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuA3.

B. Dautzenberg, presented at Conference: Communicating Health, the Tobacco Example, Brussels, 9 October 2008.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup of the fiber sensor. Mechanical vibration is employed to the fiber at the incoupling end. A reference gas ( 10 vol . % CH 4 ) is filled in the photodetector housing to form an integrated reference cell [7]. Compact electronics serve as the sensor control for signal processing and data evaluation. (b) Far field of the fiber: the speckle pattern indicates highly multimode propagation of the light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured second-harmonic transmission spectrum (from wavelength modulation spectroscopy) of CO and CH 4 with vibration (blue solid curve) and without vibration of the fiber (red dashed curve) and the theoretical spectrum (HITRAN) (black dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sensor baseline (output values “without” CO) caused by the fiber spectral background. With optimized vibration amplitude (37%), the sensor baseline has low noise and almost no offset, whereas other conditions give a strong time-dependent offset (0% and 40%) or high noise (60%) on the sensor baseline. The percentage values give the relative vibration strength, because the absolute value is unknown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Allan standard deviation [14] versus averaging time shown for the 3 m fiber based sensor (red solid curve), the 40 cm single-reflective cell based sensor (green solid curve), and the extrapolated performance of a 3 m single- reflective based sensor (green dotted curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured carbon monoxide concentration in exhalation of a smoker (red dashed curve) and a nonsmoker (blue solid curve) in 1 s time resolution. Each measurement consists of (i) sampling of the exhalation into the fiber, (ii) keeping the gas in the fiber, and (iii) purging with nitrogen.

Equations (1)

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c res = a res L α ,

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