Abstract

In this Letter, we explore plasmonics-based spatially activated light microscopy (PSALM) for sub-diffraction-limited imaging of biomolecules. PSALM is based on the spatially switched activation of local amplified electromagnetic hot spots under multiple light incidence conditions. The hot spots are associated with surface plasmons that are excited and localized by surface nanostructures. The feasibility of the concept was demonstrated by imaging fluorescent nanobeads on a two-dimensional gold nanograting of a 100-nm-wide grating ridge, the size of which is the measure of the imaging resolution. The result confirms the performance of PSALM for imaging nanobeads at a resolution below the conventional diffraction limit.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

K. Kim, Y. Oh, K. Ma, E. Sim, and D. Kim, Opt. Lett. 34, 3905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, Nat. Protocols 4, 291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 3, 793(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

K. Tawa and K. Morigaki, Biophys. J. 89, 2750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125405(2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, Colloids Surf. A 171, 115(2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Yokota, K. Saito, and T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125405(2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125405(2001).
[CrossRef]

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 3, 793(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E.-J.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.-W.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gould, T. J.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, Nat. Protocols 4, 291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, S. T.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, Nat. Protocols 4, 291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y.-M.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, K. Ma, E. Sim, and D. Kim, Opt. Lett. 34, 3905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. J.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, K. Ma, E. Sim, and D. Kim, Opt. Lett. 34, 3905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, Colloids Surf. A 171, 115(2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebermann, T.

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, Colloids Surf. A 171, 115(2000).
[CrossRef]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Löfås, S.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, K.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, Y. Oh, K. Ma, E. Sim, and D. Kim, Opt. Lett. 34, 3905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morigaki, K.

K. Tawa and K. Morigaki, Biophys. J. 89, 2750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, Y.

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, B.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 3, 793(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, K.

H. Yokota, K. Saito, and T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sim, E.

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J.-S.

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tawa, K.

K. Tawa and K. Morigaki, Biophys. J. 89, 2750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkhusha, V. V.

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, Nat. Protocols 4, 291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yanagida, T.

H. Yokota, K. Saito, and T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

H. Yokota, K. Saito, and T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K.-H.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, C.-O.

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 3, 793(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

K. Tawa and K. Morigaki, Biophys. J. 89, 2750 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colloids Surf. A (1)

T. Liebermann and W. Knoll, Colloids Surf. A 171, 115(2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. Yu, B. Persson, S. Löfås, and W. Knoll, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 8902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, G. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, Nano Lett. 4, 957 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnol. (1)

K. Kim, D. J. Kim, E.-J. Cho, J.-S. Suh, Y.-M. Huh, and D. Kim, Nanotechnol. 20, 015202 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, Nat. Methods 3, 793(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protocols (1)

T. J. Gould, V. V. Verkhusha, and S. T. Hess, Nat. Protocols 4, 291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, Phys. Rev. B 64, 125405(2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Yokota, K. Saito, and T. Yanagida, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4606 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 13081(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, Science 313, 1642 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell, Science 316, 1153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

K. Kim, J.-W. Choi, K. Ma, R. Lee, K.-H. Yoo, C.-O. Yun, and D. Kim, Small 6, 1293 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of PSALM. Switching of light incidence between L1 and L2 produces spatial switching of hot spots between HS1 and HS2. (b) Experimental configuration (CO, collimator; PO, polarizer; M, mirrors; RM, rotating mirror; OB, objective; and F, filter). (c) SEM image of the fabricated nanograting.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated near-field intensity distributions for nanograting with d f = 10 nm , d g = 40 nm , and Λ = 300 μm : (a) θ in = 60 ° and (b) θ in = 60 ° . The ridge size, a measure of imaging resolution in PSALM, is currently 100 nm . Max and Min in the color bar denote maximum and minimum normalized magnetic field intensity and are, respectively, 6.6440 and 0.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of fluorescent beads taken by (a) PE-TIRFM and (b) PSALM. Also shown in insets are the magnified images of beads (marked with arrows) measured by PE-TIRFM and PSALM. The bar in the insets is 300 nm long. For (b), grating wires are directed vertically. Intensity variations during angular switching: (c) PE-TIRFM and PSALM with a bead (d) on the left side of a grating ridge and (e) on both sides. Blue squares and red circles represent light incidence with k x = k 0 sin ( 60 ° ) and k 0 sin ( 60 ° ) , respectively, where k 0 is the light wave vector in the free space.

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