Abstract

We report the first (to our knowledge) observation of correlated photon emission in hydrogenated amorphous- silicon waveguides. We compare this to photon generation in crystalline silicon waveguides with the same geometry. In particular, we show that amorphous silicon has a higher nonlinearity and competes with crystalline silicon in spite of higher loss.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 983 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Fulconis, O. Alibart, W. Wadsworth, P. Russell, and J. Rarity, Opt. Express 13, 7572 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. E. Sharping, K. F. Lee, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and P. Kumar, Opt. Express 14, 12388 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabashi, Opt. Express 16, 5721 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K.-I. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S.-I. Itabashi, Opt. Express 16, 20368 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).
  9. S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Shoji, T. Ogasawara, T. Kamei, Y. Sakakibara, S. Suda, K. Kintaka, H. Kawashima, M. Okano, T. Hasama, H. Ishikawa, and M. Mori, Opt. Express 18, 5668 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. Narayanan and S. F. Preble, Opt. Express 18, 8998(2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. G. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4076 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Higher uncertainty on second detector’s efficiency is due to absence of polarization controller before the superconducting chip.
  14. B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alibart, O.

Baets, R.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Baets, R. G.

Bogaerts, W.

S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. G. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Clemmen, S.

S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Dumon, P.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. G. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, Ph.

S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Fiorentino, M.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fukuda, H.

Fulconis, J.

Gaeta, A. L.

Harada, K.-I.

Hasama, T.

Ishikawa, H.

Itabashi, S.-I.

Jaenen, P.

Kamei, T.

Kawashima, H.

Kintaka, K.

Kumar, P.

Kuyken, B.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Lee, K. F.

Lipson, M.

Massar, S.

S. Clemmen, K. Phan Huy, W. Bogaerts, R. G. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, Opt. Express 17, 16558 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Mori, M.

Narayanan, K.

Ogasawara, T.

Okano, M.

Perret, A.

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Phan Huy, K.

Preble, S. F.

Rarity, J.

Roelkens, G.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Russell, P.

Sakakibara, Y.

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

Selvaraja, S. K.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. G. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

Sharping, J. E.

Shoji, Y.

Sleeckx, E.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suda, S.

Takesue, H.

Tokura, Y.

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. K. Selvaraja, P. Jaenen, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. G. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 4076 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W.

Watanabe, T.

Yamada, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S.-I. Itabashi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Fiorentino, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 983 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, Opt. Commun. 282, 1767 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Other (3)

S. Clemmen, A. Perret, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, Ph. Emplit, and S. Massar, “Noise affecting photon pair generation in silicon waveguides,” (submitted to Opt. Express).

Higher uncertainty on second detector’s efficiency is due to absence of polarization controller before the superconducting chip.

B. Kuyken, S. Clemmen, S. K.Selvaraja, W. Bogaerts, S. Massar, R. Baets, and G. Roelkens, “Self phase modulation in highly nonlinear hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” to be presented at the 23rd Annual Meeting of the IEEE Photonics Society, Denver, Colo., 7–11 November 2010.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coincidence measurement: laser, cw beam at 1539.8 nm amplified by an EDFA; Atn, tunable attenuator; pc, polarization controller; bpf, bandpass filter centered at pump wavelength; ff, switch mirror; col, collimation package; dmux1, demultiplexer add and drop filter for the pump band; bbf, bandblock filter; dmux2, Stokes/anti-Stokes selector; sspd, superconductor single photon detectors; tdc, time-to-digital converter provides result as a histogram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detected coincidence rate versus pump power in the c-Si waveguide (blue, top curve) and in the a-Si:H waveguide (red, bottom curve). Error bars come from Poisson statistics. Curves are quadratic fits following Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

CAR versus the measured pair flux in the a-Si:H waveguide (red, bottom) and in the c-Si waveguide (blue, top). Error bars come from Poisson statistics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured photon flux versus input power in a-Si:H (red, circles) and c-Si (blue, stars) in the anti-Stokes band. The flux generated is slightly higher in a-Si:H despite higher propagation and coupling losses. Error bars come from Poisson statistics.

Equations (1)

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Φ = 1 2 π Δ ω | γ PL sinc [ L ( ( β 2 ω 2 ) 2 4 + β 2 ω 2 γ P ) 1 / 2 ] | 2 d ω ,

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