Abstract

Warm-white LEDs (WLEDs) with high spectral quality and efficiency are required for lighting applications, but current experimental performances are limited. We report on nanocrystal quantum dot (NQD) hybridized WLEDs with high performance that exhibit a high luminous efficacy of optical radiation exceeding 350lm/Wopt and a high color rendering index close to 90 at a low correlated color temperature <3000K. These spectrally engineered WLEDs are obtained using a combination of CdSe/ZnS core/shell NQD nanophosphors integrated on blue InGaN/GaN LEDs.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Y. Tsao, in The 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2008), paper WU4.
  3. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, Opt. Express 18, 340 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, J. Display Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics(Cambridge U. Press, 2010).
  11. S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diode (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, Opt. Express 18, 340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics(Cambridge U. Press, 2010).

2009 (1)

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Tsao, in The 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2008), paper WU4.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, J. Display Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diode (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, D.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coltrin, M. E.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Colvin, V. L.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

Crawford, M. H.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, Opt. Express 18, 340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erdem, T.

Fischer, A. J.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaponenko, S. V.

S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics(Cambridge U. Press, 2010).

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

Huang, C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ivanauskas, F.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. Y.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, C. R.

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kloper, V.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, J. Display Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kroner, M.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. G.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, I.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, J. Display Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, J. Display Technol. 3, 160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nizamoglu, S.

T. Erdem, S. Nizamoglu, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, Opt. Express 18, 340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osovsky, R.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozel, T.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. M.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rohwer, L. E. S.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sari, E.

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sashchiuk, A.

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlamp, M. C.

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diode (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

Shiao, W.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, W.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, in The 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2008), paper WU4.

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D.

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zengin, G.

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Žukauskas, A.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. S. Jang, H. Yang, S. W. Kim, J. Y. Han, S. G. Lee, and D. Y. Jeon, Adv. Mater. 20, 2696 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. B. Murray, C. R. Kagan, and M. G. Bawendi, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30, 545 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Nizamoglu, G. Zengin, and H. V. Demir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 234 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Chen, D. Yeh, C. Lu, C. Huang, W. Shiao, J. Huang, C. C. Yang, I. Liu, and W. Su, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 1430 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

J. M. Phillips, M. E. Coltrin, M. H. Crawford, A. J. Fischer, M. R. Krames, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, Y. Ohno, L. E. S. Rohwer, J. A. Simmons, and J. Y. Tsao, Laser Photon. Rev. 1, 307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. Nizamoglu, T. Ozel, E. Sari, and H. V. Demir, Nanotechnology 18, 065709 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

V. L. Colvin, M. C. Schlamp, and A. P. Alivisatos, Nature 370, 354 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Osovsky, D. Cheskis, V. Kloper, A. Sashchiuk, M. Kroner, and E. Lifshitz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 197401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics(Cambridge U. Press, 2010).

J. Y. Tsao, in The 21st Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society Conference Proceedings (IEEE, 2008), paper WU4.

E. F. Schubert, Light Emitting Diode (Cambridge U. Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Feasible sets of CRI versus LER for WLEDs integrated with NQD nanophosphors and (b) CRI of NQD-integrated warm-WLEDs (WLEDs 1, 2, and 3) analyzed at different Munsell hues.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electroluminescence spectra of the first NQD-LED design (WLED 1) integrated with green-, yellow-, and orange-emitting CdSe/ZnS core/shell NQD nanophosphors on blue LED chips ( λ EL = 452 nm ) driven at different levels of current injection at room temperature, along with the corresponding ( x , y ) coordinates versus CCT and a picture of a NQD-LED generating white light. In the inset, the values given in the squares represent the current injection levels at that operating point.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electroluminescence spectra of the second NQD-LED design (WLED 2) integrated with green-, yellow-, and orange-emitting CdSe/ZnS core/shell NQD nanophosphors on blue LED chips ( λ EL = 452 nm ) driven at different levels of current injection at room temperature, along with the corresponding ( x , y ) coordinates versus CCT and a picture of a NQD-LED generating white light. In the inset, the values given in the squares represent the current injection levels at that operating point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electroluminescence spectra of the third NQD-LED design (WLED 3) integrated with green-, yellow-, and orange-emitting CdSe/ZnS core/shell NQD nanophosphors on blue LED chips ( λ EL = 452 nm ) driven at different levels of current injection at room temperature, along with the corresponding ( x , y ) coordinates versus CCT and a picture of NQD-LED while generating white light. In the inset, the values given in the squares represent the current injection levels at that operating point.

Equations (1)

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η power = t η LED + ( 1 t ) η NQD ( λ LED / λ NQD ) ,

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