Abstract

We use a unique multifocal multiphoton microscope to directly characterize the pulse in the focal plane of a high-NA objective using second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG). Because of the nature of the optical setup, femtosecond laser pulses of orthogonal polarization states are generated in the focal plane, each acquiring a different spectral dispersion. By applying an additional constraint on the phase extraction algorithm, we simultaneously extract both the gate and probe pulses from a single spectrogram with a FROG error of 0.016.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010

2008

2007

2006

2005

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Meth. 2, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

D. N. Fittinghoff, A. C. Millard, J. A. Squier, and M. Müller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

1995

1993

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, Science 259, 1581(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amir, W.

Backus, S.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, C. P. J.

Beaurepaire, E.

Carriles, R.

Chandler, E. V.

Christov, I. P.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clement, T. S.

Dahleh, M.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, Science 259, 1581(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Débarre, D.

DeLong, K. W.

Denk, W.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Meth. 2, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Field, J. J.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghoff, A. C. Millard, J. A. Squier, and M. Müller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, J. N. Sweester, R. Trebino, and M. Müller, Opt. Lett. 23, 1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, Nat. Meth. 2, 932 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoover, E. E.

Hughes, T.

Joffre, M.

Kane, D. J.

Kane, S.

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleinfeld, D.

Martin, J.-L.

Millard, A. C.

D. N. Fittinghoff, A. C. Millard, J. A. Squier, and M. Müller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Misoguti, L.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, M.

D. N. Fittinghoff, A. C. Millard, J. A. Squier, and M. Müller, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 479 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Fittinghoff, J. A. Squier, C. P. J. Barty, J. N. Sweester, R. Trebino, and M. Müller, Opt. Lett. 23, 1046 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogilvie, J. P.

Planchon, T. A.

Rabitz, H.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, Science 259, 1581(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

Sheetz, K. E.

Solinas, X.

Squier, J. A.

Sweester, J. N.

Sylvester, A. W.

Taylor, A. J.

Tillo, S.

Trebino, R.

Vdovin, G.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, W. S.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh, Science 259, 1581(1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

Zeek, E.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Nature 406, 164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of DMM system and modification for blind FROG measurements in focus. The scan optics consists of a standard telecentric imaging system constructed with a scan lens and a tube lens. Focal depth is controlled in the short arm by the DM, and dispersion due to image relaying lenses in this arm account for the differences in spectral phase between each pulse in the focal plane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Test of the blind FROG extraction algorithm. The probe and gate pulses from the SHG FROG were measured sequentially and extracted with the well-established PCGP phase extraction. The probe and gate pulses were measured simultaneously with blind FROG and extracted with the variation of the PCGPA. Frog errors were 0.013 and 0.018 for the SHG FROG of the probe and gate pulses, respectively, and 0.016 for the blind FROG phase retrieval, both on a 200 × 200 point grid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal intensity envelopes of an unoptimized (input) pulse and an optimized pulse in the focal plane of a 0.75 NA / 40 × objective. FROG error for the data reconstruction is 0.019 for the input pulse and 0.014 for the optimized pulse, each on an 80 × 80 point grid.

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