Abstract

X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) is proposed as a new dual molecular/anatomical imaging modality. XLCT is based on the selective excitation and optical detection of x-ray-excitable nanoparticles. As a proof of concept, we built a prototype XLCT system and imaged near-IR-emitting Gd2O2S:Eu phosphors in various phantoms. Imaging in an optically diffusive medium shows that imaging performance is not affected by optical scatter; furthermore, the linear response of the reconstructed images suggests that XLCT is capable of quantitative imaging.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

U. Speck, in Molecular Imaging I (Springer, 2008), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Optics 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Cesareo and S. Mascarenhas, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 277, 669 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

L. A. Shepp and Y. Vardi, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 1, 113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annenkov, A.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Cao, W.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.-H.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, C.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, "X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (to be published).

Carpenter, C. M.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cesareo, R.

R. Cesareo and S. Mascarenhas, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 277, 669 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S.-K.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cong, A.

Cong, W.

Coquoz, O.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fishkin, J. B.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gambhir, S. S.

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gektin, A.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Hoffman, E.

Jiang, M.

Jones, B. L.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korzhik, M.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Kumar, D.

Lecoq, P.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Ling, X.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Luo, X.-X.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, N.

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohar, N.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, A. F.

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mascarenhas, S.

R. Cesareo and S. Mascarenhas, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 277, 669 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McCray, P.

McLennan, G.

Pang, T.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Optics 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedrini, C.

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

Pham, T. H.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Optics 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pratx, G.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, "X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (to be published).

Rao, J.

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, R.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shepp, L. A.

L. A. Shepp and Y. Vardi, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 1, 113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Siddiqi, A. K.

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, U.

U. Speck, in Molecular Imaging I (Springer, 2008), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, "X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (to be published).

Tian, Y.

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vardi, Y.

L. A. Shepp and Y. Vardi, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 1, 113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, L.

Xing, L.

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, "X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (to be published).

Xing, M.

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zabner, J.

Chin. Sci. Bull. (1)

M. Xing, W. Cao, T. Pang, X. Ling, and N. Chen, Chin. Sci. Bull. 54, 2982 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (2)

G. Pratx, C. Carpenter, C. Sun, and L. Xing, "X-ray luminescence computed tomography via selective excitation: a feasibility study," IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. (to be published).

L. A. Shepp and Y. Vardi, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 1, 113 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

Y. Tian, W.-H. Cao, X.-X. Luo, and Y. Fu, J. Alloys Compd. 433, 313 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Optics (1)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, J. Biomed. Optics 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

C. M. Carpenter, C. Sun, G. Pratx, R. Rao, and L. Xing, Med. Phys. 37, 4011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A (1)

R. Cesareo and S. Mascarenhas, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 277, 669 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S.-K. Cheong, B. L. Jones, A. K. Siddiqi, F. Liu, N. Manohar, and S. H. Cho, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 647 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. H. Pham, O. Coquoz, J. B. Fishkin, E. Anderson, and B. J. Tromberg, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2500 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

N. Ma, A. F. Marshall, S. S. Gambhir, and J. Rao, Small 6, 1520 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

U. Speck, in Molecular Imaging I (Springer, 2008), pp. 167–175.
[CrossRef]

P. Lecoq, A. Annenkov, A. Gektin, M. Korzhik, and C. Pedrini, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems: Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering (Springer, 2006).

C. Sun, C. Carpenter, G. Pratx, and L. Xing, in World Molecular Imaging Congress (2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A phantom containing phosphor inclusions is moved on a rotation/translation stage while being irradiated by a narrow, stationary x-ray beam. At each position, the XL signal was measured with an EM-CCD camera. Inset, XL spectrum for GOSE.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample images acquired with an EM-CCD camera (white arrow) of the turbid phantom under three different x-ray irradiations (bottom-right inset). Each image maps to a sinogram bin (red cross, bottom-left inset). The hot spot in the middle image was caused by a defect in the phantom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A turbid phantom (left), composed of phosphor suspended in an optically diffusive cylinder, was acquired using XLCT to produce a sinogram (middle), which was reconstructed with 100 iterations of ML-EM (right). The simulation (bottom row) modeled the light propagation in a diffuse medium.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A gradient phantom (left), composed of various phosphor concentrations embedded in a gel, was acquired using XLCT to produce a sinogram (middle), which was reconstructed with 100 iterations of ML-EM (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Response linearity for all seven phosphor inclusions, shown for the experimental and simulated gradient phantom.

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