Abstract

We report the development of a multiple-trap laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) array for simultaneously acquiring Raman spectra of individual cells in physiological environments. This LTRS-array technique was also combined with phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy, allowing measurement of Raman spectra, refractility, and fluorescence images of individual cells with a temporal resolution of ~5 s. As a demonstration, we used this technique to monitor multiple Bacillus cereus spores germinating in a nutrient medium for up to 90min and observed the kinetics of dipicolinic acid release and uptake of nucleic acid-binding stain molecules during spore germination.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 538 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. V. Avery, Nature Rev. Microbiol. 4, 577 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. G. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Creely, G. Volpe, G. Singh, M. Soler, and D. Petrov, Opt. Express 13, 6105 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Express 17, 16480 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
  19. M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2010

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Express 17, 16480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. V. Avery, Nature Rev. Microbiol. 4, 577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Creely, G. Volpe, G. Singh, M. Soler, and D. Petrov, Opt. Express 13, 6105 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2000

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ai, M.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avery, S. V.

S. V. Avery, Nature Rev. Microbiol. 4, 577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M. J.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balint, S.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brehm-Stecher, B. F.

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creely, C.

Creely, C. M.

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, J.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinno, M. A.

Faria, E. C.

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, P.

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gong, T.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griffiths, R. I.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grötsch, H.

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haka, A. S.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, T. J.

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, B.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. S.

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W. E.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, E. A.

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, L. B.

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreuzer, M.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, S. M.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lau, A. Y.

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. P.

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Li, Y. Q.

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Express 17, 16480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Xie, M. A. Dinno, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Lett. 27, 249 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Liu, J. X.

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Løvhaugen, P.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macdonald, M. P.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mio, C.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pelczar, P. L.

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, L.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, D.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Creely, G. Volpe, G. Singh, M. Soler, and D. Petrov, Opt. Express 13, 6105 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, S.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setlow, P.

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Opt. Express 17, 16480 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, G.

Singh, G. P.

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snook, R. D.

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soler, M.

Spalding, G. C.

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Z.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. S.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terray, A.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, I. P.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuscano, J.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vepachedu, V. R.

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Creely, G. Volpe, G. Singh, M. Soler, and D. Petrov, Opt. Express 13, 6105 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. W.

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Whiteley, A. S.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, C. G.

Yao, H.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, H. L.

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Zhang, P.

Zhang, P. F.

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwerdling, T.

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

W. E. Huang, R. I. Griffiths, I. P. Thompson, M. J. Bailey, and A. S. Whiteley, Anal. Chem. 76, 4452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Singh, C. M. Creely, G. Volpe, H. Grötsch, and D. Petrov, Anal. Chem. 77, 2564 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, D. Chen, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 81, 4035 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Kong, P. F. Zhang, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Anal. Chem. 82, 3840 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Chan, D. S. Taylor, S. M. Lane, T. Zwerdling, J. Tuscano, and T. Huser, Anal. Chem. 80, 2180 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol.

P. F. Zhang, L. B. Kong, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 1796 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Integr. Biol.

R. D. Snook, T. J. Harvey, E. C. Faria, and P. Gardner, Integr. Biol. 1, 43 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bacteriol.

S. S. Huang, D. Chen, P. L. Pelczar, V. R. Vepachedu, P. Setlow, and Y. Q. Li, J. Bacteriol. 189, 4681 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lab Chip

A. Y. Lau, L. P. Lee, and J. W. Chan, Lab Chip 8, 1116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.

B. F. Brehm-Stecher and E. A. Johnson, Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68, 538 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

M. P. Macdonald, G. C. Spalding, and K. Dholakia, Nature 426, 421 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Rev. Microbiol.

S. V. Avery, Nature Rev. Microbiol. 4, 577 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Rao, S. Balint, P. Løvhaugen, M. Kreuzer, and D. Petrov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 087401 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

A. S. Haka, K. E. Shafer-Peltier, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Crowe, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 12371 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. Mio, T. Gong, A. Terray, and D. W. M. Marr, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vibration. Spectrosc.

H. Yao, Z. Tao, M. Ai, L. Peng, G. Wang, B. He, and Y. Q. Li, Vibration. Spectrosc. 50, 193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. Li, G. W. Wang, H. L. Yao, J. X. Liu, and Y. Q. Li, “Dual-trap Raman tweezers for probing dynamics and heterogeneity of interacting microbial cells,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup: GM 1 , GM 2 , GM 3 , galvo mirrors; DM 1 , DM 2 , dichroic mirrors; M 1 , M 2 , mirrors; and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 , lenses. (b) The images of individual polystyrene beads trapped in 1D and 2D arrays with a separation of 6 μm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raman spectral image on the CCD chip of four trapped 2 μm polystyrene beads, (b) Raman spectra of four trapped polystyrene beads by selective binning of the CCD pixels, and (c) Raman spectra of four trapped dormant B. cereus spores. The average laser power for each trap was 4 mW , and the acquisition time was 5 s . The bands at 658, 824, 1017, 1395, and 1572 cm 1 are from CaDPA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simultaneous monitoring of four trapped B. cereus spores germinating in a mixture of 10 mM L-alanine, 25 mM Tris buffer (pH 8.3) and 0.5 μM SYTO 16. (a) Phase-contrast images and (b) fluorescence images of trapped spores at different incubation times. (c) Raman scattering intensities at 1017 cm 1 and (d) fluorescence intensities are shown as a function of incubation time. The vertical dotted lines and arrows mark the times of T release for each spore.

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