Abstract

We demonstrate the switching of light in the near-infrared region (1.55μm) through the manipulation of magnetic nanoparticles in a magnetic fluid by using another light in the visible region (0.532μm). The formation of a photonic gap is found in the magnetic fluid when a laser light or a magnetic field is applied. A shift of the photonic gap to longer wavelengths is observed with increasing laser power or magnetic field strength.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Philip, J. M. Lascar, and B. Raj, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

C. Hosokawa, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 72, 021408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshikawa, T. Matsui, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 70, 061406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hoffmann and W. Köhler, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 262, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Arlt, J.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Optical Trapping and Manipulation of Neutral Particles Using Lasers (World Scientific, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Bai, L.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burns, M. M.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. M.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, Y. P.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. F.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, H. D.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fournier, J.-M.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girard, C.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, J. A.

M. M. Burns, J.-M. Fournier, and J. A. Golovchenko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1233 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, A. V.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grier, D. G.

D. G. Grier, Nature 424, 810 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Q.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, B.

B. Hoffmann and W. Köhler, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 262, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hosokawa, C.

C. Hosokawa, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 72, 021408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. G.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeang, B. Y.

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. John, Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2169 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, W.

B. Hoffmann and W. Köhler, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 262, 289 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lascar, J. M.

J. Philip, J. M. Lascar, and B. Raj, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Q.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. Y.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. H.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. D.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuhara, H.

C. Hosokawa, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 72, 021408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshikawa, T. Matsui, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 70, 061406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

H. Yoshikawa, T. Matsui, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 70, 061406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z. M.

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paterson, L.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philip, J.

J. Philip, J. M. Lascar, and B. Raj, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Raj, B.

J. Philip, J. M. Lascar, and B. Raj, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 221911 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Righini, M.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, T.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trofimov, V. A.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volke-Sepulveda, K.

M. P. MacDonald, L. Paterson, K. Volke-Sepulveda, J. Arlt, W. Sibbett, and K. Dholakia, Science 296, 1101 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A. R.

J. Li, X. D. Liu, Y. Q. Lin, L. Bai, Q. Li, X. M. Chen, and A. R. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 253108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. J.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, Z. M. Meng, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H. C.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 5204 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, Y. P. Chiu, B. Y. Jeang, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2372 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. B.

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, Q. F. Dai, X. G. Huang, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Opt. Lett. 33, 2617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, H.

C. Hosokawa, H. Yoshikawa, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 72, 021408 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshikawa, T. Matsui, and H. Masuhara, Phys. Rev. E 70, 061406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zelenina, A. S.

M. Righini, A. S. Zelenina, C. Girard, and R. Quidant, Nat. Phys. 3, 477 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W. R.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Q. F. Dai, H. Y. Liu, J. Liu, L. J. Wu, Q. Guo, W. Hu, X. B. Yang, S. H. Liu, S. Lan, A. V. Gopal, and V. A. Trofimov, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Software developed by Rsoft Design Group (http://www.rsoftdesign.com) is used for finite-difference time-domain simulation.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics showing (a) the structure of the proposed optical switch, (b) random distribution of magnetic nanoparticles inside the capillary and the transmission of the signal light through the capillary in the absence of the control light, and (c) formation of magnetic clusters and enhanced backscattering of the signal light induced by the control light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Morphology of the magnetic fluid inside the capillary (a) just before the control light is turned on, (b) in the presence of the control light, and (c) just after the control light is turned off.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dynamic change of the transmission and its dependence on the trapping power during the switching operation. The times when the control light is switched on and off are indicted by arrows. (b) Evolution of the transmission spectrum of the magnetic fluid with increasing trapping power during the switching operation. In each case, the gap center is indicated by an arrow.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the transmission spectrum of the magnetic fluid with increasing magnetic field. In each case, the transmission spectrum has been normalized with respect to that obtained in the absence of the magnetic field, and the gap center is indicated by an arrow.

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