Abstract

A highly integrated sensor that is based on a hybrid coupler composed of short-range surface plasmon polariton (SRSPP) and dielectric waveguides was proposed for refractive index detecting of an ultrathin layer. The dependence of the coupling between the SRSPP and dielectric waveguide mode on the refractive index of the detecting layer was analyzed theoretically. For a detecting layer as thin as 115 wavelength, the resolution can be as high as 3.3×106 refractive index units with a sensing length of only tens of micrometers.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Opt. Lett. 34, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Vala, J. Dostálek, and J. Homola, Proc. SPIE 6585, 658522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

1986

J. J. Bruke and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bruke, J. J.

J. J. Bruke and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brynda, E.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ctyrok, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dostalek, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dostálek, J.

M. Vala, J. Dostálek, and J. Homola, Proc. SPIE 6585, 658522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Groger, H.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Guo, J.

Hastings, J. T.

Hoa, X. D.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Homola, J.

M. Vala, J. Dostálek, and J. Homola, Proc. SPIE 6585, 658522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Opt. Lett. 34, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keathley, P. D.

Kirk, A. G.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Opt. Lett. 34, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, P.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), pp. 212-214.

Luo, S. F.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Nekvindova, P.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

Peng, J.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Opt. Lett. 34, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schrofel, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skalsky, M.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skvor, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), pp. 212-214.

Spikova, J.

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, R.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Stegeman, G. I.

J. J. Bruke and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tabrizian, M.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, X.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vala, M.

M. Vala, J. Dostálek, and J. Homola, Proc. SPIE 6585, 658522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wan, R.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, R. Wan, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Opt. Lett. 34, 2697 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, M. N.

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

J. Homola, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 377, 528 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Wan, F. Liu, X. Tang, Y. Huang, and J. Peng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 141104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

X. D. Hoa, A. G. Kirk, and M. Tabrizian, Biosens. Bioelectron. 23, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. J. Bruke and G. I. Stegeman, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

M. Vala, J. Dostálek, and J. Homola, Proc. SPIE 6585, 658522 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A

M. N. Weiss, R. Srivastava, H. Groger, P. Lo, and S. F. Luo, Sens. Actuators A 51, 211 (1996).

Sens. Actuators B

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, Sens. Actuators B 54, 3 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dostalek, J. Ctyrok, J. Homola, E. Brynda, M. Skalsky, P. Nekvindova, J. Spikova, J. Skvor, and J. Schrofel, Sens. Actuators B 76, 8 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Kluwer Academic, 1983), pp. 212-214.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Proposed sensor based on the SRSPP–dielectric hybrid coupling structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)–(d) Complex magnetic field profile of two eigenmodes when h det = 150 nm with n det = 1.4 (black dashed), n det = 1.475 (red solid), and n det = 1.57 (blue dotted). (a) and (b) show the real and imaginary part of mode A, respectively; (c) and (d) show the real and imaginary part of mode B, respectively. (e) Effective refractive index ( Re { n eff } ) of SRSPP (red) and LRSPP (blue) mode of individual Au waveguide part (layers 3–6 in Fig. 1) as a function of n det . The black line corresponds to Re { n eff } of the dielectric waveguide mode supported by individual Si N x waveguide parts (layers 1–3 in Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output power P out versus sensing length L labeled with different n det . Simulated field intensity transmission process when (b) n det = 1.4 , (c) n det = 1.475 , and (d) n det = 1.57 .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output power P out as a function of n det labeled with different detecting thickness h det .

Equations (2)

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H ( x , z ) = m = A , B a m e β mi z H m ( x ) e i β mr z ,
a L = 1 2 ( E d × H ( x , z = L ) ) z ̂ d A = m = A , B a m 2 e β mi L e i β mr L .

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