Abstract

A vulnerability that allows eavesdroppers to extract the code from the waveform of the noiselike encoded signal of an isolated user in a standard time-spreading optical code division multiple access communication system using bipolar phase code is experimentally demonstrated. The principle is based on fine structure in the encoded signal. Each dip in the waveform corresponds to a transition of the bipolar code. Eavesdroppers can get the code by analyzing the chip numbers between any two transitions; then a decoder identical to the legal user’s can be fabricated, and they can get the properly decoded signal.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, in Optical Fiber Communication and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA93.
  6. T. H. Shake, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 655 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4228 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

T. H. Shake, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cincotti, G.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, in Optical Fiber Communication and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA93.

Dai, Y.

Fejer, M. M.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, in Optical Fiber Communication and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA93.

Langrock, C.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, T.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shake, T. H.

Sun, J.

Teh, P. C.

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wada, N.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, in Optical Fiber Communication and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA93.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

Yang, S.

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. P. Heritage and A. M. Weiner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 1351 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Jiang, D. Seo, S. Yang, D. E. Leaird, R. V. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 705 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, T. Miyazaki, and K. Kitayama, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1603 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Teh, P. Petropoulos, M. Ibsen, and D. J. Richardson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, and K. Kitayama, in Optical Fiber Communication and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JThA93.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. IM, intensity modulator; PPG, pulse-pattern generator; DSO, digital sampling oscilloscope; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental results: (a) code 1, (b) input ultrashort pulse, (c) encoded signal of code 1, (d) decoded signal, (e) code 2, (f) encoded signal of code 2, (g) spectrum of encoded signal of code 1, (h) spectrum of encoded signal of code 2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulation result of the encoded signal of code 1, (b) experimental result of the encoded signal of code 1, (c) code 1. (d) Simulation result of the encoded signal of code 2, (e) experimental result of the encoded signal of code 2, (f) code 2.

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