Abstract

Efficient emission at 1.38μm wavelength from holmium (Ho3+)-doped low-phonon-energy gallate bismuth lead (GBL) oxide glasses, owing to the Ho3+: (S25,F45)I55 transition, was observed, and the stimulated emission cross section was calculated to be 2.4×1021cm2. Population inversions between the (S25,F45) and I55 levels have been achieved, and a broad gain bandwidth from 1350to1450nm was obtained. The large product of emission cross section and measured lifetime also support this characteristic. The results indicate that a Ho3+-doped GBL glass system is a promising candidate for the development of E-band (13601460nm) fiber-optic amplifiers.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. M. Sangeetha and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, Phys. Rev. B 73, 144201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Mater. 27, 679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, and P. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, and K. H. Kim, Chin. Phys. Lasers 354, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ebendor-Heidepriem, I. Szab, and Z. E. Rasztovits, Opt. Mater. 14, 127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 134, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Batlogg, B.

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buddhudu, S.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, and K. H. Kim, Chin. Phys. Lasers 354, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, and P. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dodabalapur, A.

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebendor-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendor-Heidepriem, I. Szab, and Z. E. Rasztovits, Opt. Mater. 14, 127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ganem, J.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, and P. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glodis, P. F.

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, J.

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, Phys. Rev. B 73, 144201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Huang, L. H.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ji, X. H.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z. H.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasap, S.

S. Kasap, in The Optics Encyclopedia, T.Brown, K.Creath, H.Kogelnik, M.A.Kriss, J.Schmit, and M.J.Weber, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 2237-2284.

Kim, K. H.

Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, and K. H. Kim, Chin. Phys. Lasers 354, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kloc, C.

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. H.

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, Phys. Rev. B 73, 144201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 134, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Obara, M.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Mater. 27, 679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ohta, K.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. J.

Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, and K. H. Kim, Chin. Phys. Lasers 354, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

Pun, E. Y. B.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rasztovits, Z. E.

H. Ebendor-Heidepriem, I. Szab, and Z. E. Rasztovits, Opt. Mater. 14, 127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saito, H.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Samson, B. N.

Sangeetha, N. M.

N. M. Sangeetha and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, and P. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schon, J. H.

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, T.

Shraiman, B. I.

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephen, M. J.

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szab, I.

H. Ebendor-Heidepriem, I. Szab, and Z. E. Rasztovits, Opt. Mater. 14, 127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, G. A.

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tobben, H.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

N. M. Sangeetha and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

West, G. F.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wetenkamp, L.

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, H.

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Mater. 27, 679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. L.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, B.

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Y. Zhang, T. Li, Z. H. Jiang, X. H. Ji, and S. Buddhudu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171911 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lasers (1)

Y. G. Choi, B. J. Park, and K. H. Kim, Chin. Phys. Lasers 354, 69 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

B. Zhou, E. Y. B. Pun, H. Lin, D. L. Yang, and L. H. Huang, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, H. Lin, D. Yang, L. Lin, and E. Y. B. Pun, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 113535 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, J. Appl. Phys. 73, 3149 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, J. Appl. Phys. 98, 113510 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

L. Wetenkamp, G. F. West, and H. Tobben, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 140, 35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

N. M. Sangeetha and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 14702 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

G. A. Thomas, B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephen, Nature 404, 262 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (2)

H. Yamauchi and Y. Ohishi, Opt. Mater. 27, 679 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ebendor-Heidepriem, I. Szab, and Z. E. Rasztovits, Opt. Mater. 14, 127 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

D. E. McCumber, Phys. Rev. 134, A954 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Ganem, J. Crawford, and P. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. B 66, 245101 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Lee and J. Heo, Phys. Rev. B 73, 144201 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. H. Schon, C. Kloc, A. Dodabalapur, and B. Batlogg, Science 289, 599 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

S. Kasap, in The Optics Encyclopedia, T.Brown, K.Creath, H.Kogelnik, M.A.Kriss, J.Schmit, and M.J.Weber, eds. (Wiley-VCH, 2004), Vol. 4, pp. 2237-2284.

See, for example, Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M.J. F.Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2001), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of 1.00 wt. % Ho 3 + -doped GBL. Inset, the energy-level diagram and the excitation route for Ho 3 + : ( S 2 5 , F 4 5 ) I 5 5 transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectrum of Ho 3 + -doped GBL at 539 nm wavelength excitation. Inset, the intensity ratio between 1.65 and 1.38 μ m emissions, and the mean duration lifetime of 1.38 μ m emission as a function of Ho 3 + concentration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated dependence of gain coefficient on Ho 3 + wt.% concentration: (a) 0.05, (b) 0.10, (c) 0.20, (d) 0.50, and (e) 1.00.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G ( λ ) = n 6 × σ em ( λ ) n 4 × σ abs ( λ ) ,
σ em ( λ ) = A λ 5 I ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 λ I ( λ ) d λ ,
d n 6 d t = σ 16 Φ n 1 ( τ 6 1 + W m 6 + C 61 n 1 ) n 6 ,
n 6 = σ 16 Φ n 1 τ m 6 .
γ = A 4 β 42 A 6 β 64 ( λ I 1.38 μ m ( λ ) d λ λ I 1.65 μ m ( λ ) d λ ) ,
G ( λ ) = σ 16 Φ n 1 τ m 6 σ em [ 1 γ 1 ( Z U Z L ) exp ( E Z L h c λ 1 k B T ) ] ,

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