Abstract

We describe a zonal-wavefront-sensing technique using an array of plane diffraction gratings. A spatially coherent beam, whose wavefront is to be measured, is incident on the array of gratings. The direction of a diffracted beam of a certain diffraction order is a function of the orientation and periodicity of the corresponding grating. Thus, by choosing the orientation and periodicity of each grating appropriately and by having a lens immediately behind the grating array, it is possible to get an array of focal spots. The profile of the incident wavefront can be estimated from the displacements of these focal spots relative to those due to an unaberrated beam. The arrangement makes it possible to increase the separation between two adjacent focal spots corresponding to two nearby gratings without effecting the areas of the gratings. Consequently, a relatively large dynamic range in wavefront measurement can be achieved without compromising the accuracy. With the arrangement it is also possible to use a photodetector array whose outline is independent of the grating array outline. The proposed wavefront-sensing technique is implemented experimentally using a liquid-crystal spatial-light modulator in conjunction with a CCD camera, and the obtained results are presented.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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B. R. Boruah, Am. J. Phys. 77, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

G. Yoon, S. Pantanelli, and L. Nagy, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 030502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000

1998

1994

1980

1971

R. Shack and B. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Ares, J.

Arines, J.

Bará, S.

Booth, M. J.

Boruah, B. R.

B. R. Boruah, Am. J. Phys. 77, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Climent, V.

Copland, R.

D. Neal, R. Copland, and D. Neal, U.S. patent 7,455,407 (November 25, 2008).

Durán, V.

Huignard, J.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Lancis, J.

Laude, V.

Mahajan, V.

Nagy, L.

G. Yoon, S. Pantanelli, and L. Nagy, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 030502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D.

D. Neal, R. Copland, and D. Neal, U.S. patent 7,455,407 (November 25, 2008).

D. Neal, R. Copland, and D. Neal, U.S. patent 7,455,407 (November 25, 2008).

Neil, M. A. A.

Olivier, S.

Pantanelli, S.

G. Yoon, S. Pantanelli, and L. Nagy, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 030502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Platt, B.

R. Shack and B. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Prado, P.

Shack, R.

R. Shack and B. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Southwell, W.

Su, W.

W. Su, Y. Zhou, and Q. Zhao, U.S. patent 7,445,335 (November 4, 2008).

Tajahuerce, E.

Wilson, T.

Yoon, G.

G. Yoon, S. Pantanelli, and L. Nagy, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 030502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

W. Su, Y. Zhou, and Q. Zhao, U.S. patent 7,445,335 (November 4, 2008).

Zhou, Y.

W. Su, Y. Zhou, and Q. Zhao, U.S. patent 7,445,335 (November 4, 2008).

Am. J. Phys.

B. R. Boruah, Am. J. Phys. 77, 331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Yoon, S. Pantanelli, and L. Nagy, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 030502 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

R. Shack and B. Platt, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

W. Southwell, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 998 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. Neal, R. Copland, and D. Neal, U.S. patent 7,455,407 (November 25, 2008).

W. Su, Y. Zhou, and Q. Zhao, U.S. patent 7,445,335 (November 4, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the grating-based wavefront sensor. (b) Transmittance profile of the grating array containing 4 × 4 number of gratings. Dark and bright represent transmittances 0 and 1, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated focal spots of a grating array ( N = 4 ) corresponding to the + 1 and + 3 diffraction orders due to an aberration-free incident wavefront. The simulated focal spots corresponding to the (b) + 1 diffraction order and (c) + 3 diffraction order due to a highly aberrated wavefront. The image in (c) is scaled down by a factor of 2.5 relative to the image in (b). All the images, (a), (b), and (c), are obtained after background subtraction and are in the logarithmic scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) + 1 -order focal spots of the grating array ( N = 4 ) (a) before introducing the glass, (b) after introducing the glass, and (c) after partial aberration correction; the PSFs of the beam (d) before introducing the glass, (e) after introducing the glass, and (f) after partial aberration correction, respectively. The images in (a)–(c) appear noisy because of the coherent properties of the light entering the CCD.

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