Abstract

We investigate three-dimensional photonic superlattices composed of polymeric helices in various spatial checkerboard-like arrangements. Depending on the relative phase shift and handedness of the chiral building blocks, different circular-dichroism resonances appear or are suppressed. Samples corresponding to four different configurations are fabricated by direct laser writing. The measured optical transmittance spectra are in good agreement with numerical calculations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Lakhtakia, Optik (Stuttgart) 119, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2002

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 57, R2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brett, M. J.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 57, R2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, I. S.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gippius, N. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hermatschweiler, M.

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, S. R.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kriegler, C. E.

Lakhtakia, A.

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Lakhtakia, Optik (Stuttgart) 119, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. F.

Lee, J.

Lee, J. C. W.

Li, J.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackay, T. G.

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muljarov, E. A.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 57, R2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y. K.

Park, Y. -S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plum, E.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruther, M.

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seet, K. K.

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W. Y.

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toader, O.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yablonskii, A. L.

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, W.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Decker, M. Ruther, C. E. Kriegler, J. Zhou, C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Opt. Lett. 34, 2501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S.

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. Thiel, M. Decker, M. Deubel, M. Wegener, S. Linden, and G. von Freymann, Adv. Mater. 19, 207 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Adv. Mater. 21, 4680 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Seet, V. Mizeikis, S. Matsuo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, Adv. Mater. 17, 541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Thiel, M. Hermatschweiler, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

T. G. Mackay and A. Lakhtakia, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 1368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

S. R. Kennedy, M. J. Brett, O. Toader, and S. John, Nano Lett. 2, 59 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

N. Liu, H. Liu, S. Zhu, and H. Giessen, Nat. Photonics 3, 157 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Robbie, M. J. Brett, and A. Lakhtakia, Nature 384, 616 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Optik (Stuttgart)

A. Lakhtakia, Optik (Stuttgart) 119, 175 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

E. Plum, J. Zhou, J. Dong, V. A. Fedotov, T. Koschny, C. M. Soukoulis, and N. I. Zheludev, Phys. Rev. B 79, 035407 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan and S. Noda, Phys. Rev. B 57, R2006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Whittaker and I. S. Culshaw, Phys. Rev. B 60, 2610 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Tikhodeev, A. L. Yablonskii, E. A. Muljarov, N. A. Gippius, and T. Ishihara, Phys. Rev. B 66, 045102 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Zhang, Y.-S. Park, J. Li, X. Lu, W. Zhang, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, Science 325, 1513 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Four configurations of chiral photonic crystals: Spirals with the same handedness are in phase (I), 90° out of phase (II), and 180° out of phase (III). Configuration IV is a racemic mixture of helices. Each spiral is situated in a cubic unit cell with lattice constant a. (b) Oblique view on a chiral photonic superlattice of configuration II with N = 7 axial periods.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top-view electron micrographs of fabricated circular-spiral photonic crystals in the same order as shown in Fig. 1. (b) Oblique-view electron micrograph of a polymer structure of configuration II fabricated by direct laser writing. The cubic lattice constant of all structures is a = 3.25 μ m , their footprint is 65 μ m × 65 μ m , and they contain seven lattice constants normal to the glass substrate plane. Each spiral diameter is L = 0.9 a .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance spectra of the samples shown in Fig. 2 taken/calculated under normal incidence for circular polarization of the incident light. Left-handed (black curves) and right-handed [gray (red online) curves] circular polarizations of the incident light are shown for all four different configurations (I–IV). The gray areas highlight stop bands for circular polarization or polarization-independent stop band.

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