Abstract

Fast, compact, and power-efficient silicon microcavity electro-optic modulators are expected to be critical components for chip-level optical interconnects. It is highly desirable that these modulators can be driven by voltage swings of 1V or less to reduce power dissipation and make them compatible with voltage supply levels associated with current and future complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology nodes. Here, we present a silicon racetrack resonator modulator that achieves over 8dB modulation depth at 12.5Gbps with a 1V swing. In addition, the use of a racetrack resonator geometry relaxes the tight lithography resolution requirements typically associ ated with microring resonators and enhances the ability to use common lithographic optical techniques for their fabrication.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  3. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 18, 10941 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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2010

2009

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, Opt. Express 17, 22484 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj6.

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008).

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj6.

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj6.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pierret, R. F.

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals(Addison Wesley, 1996).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj6.

Qian, W.

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008).

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008).

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008).

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. A. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, Nature 435, 325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, Proc. IEEE 97, 1166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, Proc. IEEE 97, 1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008).

S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj6.

W. A. Zortman, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThj4.

R. F. Pierret, Semiconductor Device Fundamentals(Addison Wesley, 1996).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top-view SEM image of the fully fabricated racetrack ring modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmission spectra of the resonator with different bias voltages. (b) Resonant wavelength shift as a function of bias voltages.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation depth and insertion loss with a voltage swing of 1 V .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) 12.5 Gbps electrical drive signal from a pattern generator with a V pp of 1 V and a dc bias of 0 V . (b) 12.5 Gbps modulation of the silicon electro-optic modulator with a modulation depth of > 8 dB .

Equations (2)

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W = C ( V bi V ) 1 / 2 ,
d W / d V = 1 2 C ( V bi V ) 1 / 2 .

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