Abstract

We demonstrate a fully etched, continuously apodized fiber-to-chip surface grating coupler for the first time (to our knowledge). The device is fabricated in a single-etch step and operates with TM-polarized light, achieving a coupling efficiency of 3.7dB and a 3dB bandwidth of 60nm. A subwavelength microstructure is employed to generate an effective medium engineered to vary the strength of the grating and thereby maximize coupling efficiency, while mitigating backreflections at the same time. Minimum feature size is 100nm for compatibility with deep-UV 193nm lithography.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, P. Waldron, R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, G. Lopinski, T. Mischki, E. Post, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, Opt. Express 16, 15137(2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2520 (2006).

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 13(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 29, 2749 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Bock, P.

Bock, P. J.

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Chen, X.

X. Chen and H. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Fédéli, J.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Hall, T. J.

He, S.

Horst, F.

F. Horst, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(Optical Society of America, 2010).

Hvam, J.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, and T. J. Hall, Opt. Lett. 35, 2526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 13(2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2520 (2006).

Lapointe, J.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G.

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, R.

Mischki, T.

Molina-Fernández, Í.

Peng, S.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

Pu, M.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, Opt. Express 15, 2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2520 (2006).

Schmid, J. H.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Tanev, S.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 13(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y.

Tsang, H.

X. Chen and H. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Westergren, U.

Wosinski, L.

Xu, D.-X.

Yvind, K.

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tamir and S. Peng, Appl. Phys. 14, 235 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fédéli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. Pu, K. Yvind, and J. Hvam, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051126 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1678 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Chen and H. Tsang, IEEE Photonics J. 1, 184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 13(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2520 (2006).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (1)

F. Horst, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference(Optical Society of America, 2010).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of the fiber- to-waveguide coupling scheme using a grating coupler. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of the fabricated coupler. (c) Enlargement of the boxed area in (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated coupling efficiency as a function of wavelength for the unapodized and the apodized design. The inset compares the fiber mode with the field radiated by the unapodized and apodized grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured coupling efficiency of (a) the unapodized grating coupler and (b) the apodized grating coupler. The best and worst gratings from two chips are shown, indicating a good repeatability.

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