Abstract

We demonstrate a scheme based on a cascade of lithium niobate intensity and phase modulators driven by specially tailored RF waveforms to generate an optical frequency comb with very high spectral flatness. In this Letter, we demonstrate a 10GHz comb with 38 comb lines within a spectral power variation below 1dB. The number of comb lines that can be generated is limited by the power handling capability of the phase modulator, and this can be scaled without compromising the spectral flatness. Furthermore, the spectral phase of the generated combs in our scheme is almost purely quadratic, which, as we will demonstrate, allows for high-quality pulse compression using only single-mode fiber.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2000 (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Abe, M.

Andrés, P.

Banyai, W. C.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

Fujiwara, M.

Gee, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Godil, A. A.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hamidi, E.

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” submitted to the joint special issue of IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn./J. Lightwave Technol. on microwave photonics.

Hansryd, J.

Heritage, J. P.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

Hosako, I.

Huang, C. B.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-B.

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 42, 1114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwatsuki, K.

Jiang, Z.

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 42, 1114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kani, J.

Kauffman, M. T.

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kawanishi, T.

Kobayashi, T.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

Kolner, H.

Komukai, T.

Lancis, J.

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Express 18, 18171 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 42, 1114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” submitted to the joint special issue of IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn./J. Lightwave Technol. on microwave photonics.

Long, C. M.

Masuda, H.

Morimoto, A.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, T.

Morohashi, I.

Murata, H.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nazarathy, M.

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

Ozdur, I.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quinlan, F.

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Scott, R. P.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

Sotobayashi, H.

Supradeepa, V. R.

Suzuki, H.

Suzuki, K.

Takachio, N.

Takada, A.

Takahashi, H.

Takara, H.

Teshima, M.

Torres-Company, V.

Tsuchiya, M.

van Howe, J.

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Opt. Express 18, 18171 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 42, 1114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” submitted to the joint special issue of IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn./J. Lightwave Technol. on microwave photonics.

Xu, C.

Yamamoto, S.

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

Yaoo, S. J. B.

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. T. Kauffman, W. C. Banyai, A. A. Godil, and D. M. Bloom, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 270 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

C.-B. Huang, Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Electron. Lett. 42, 1114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, and S. Yamamoto, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, I. Ozdur, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nat. Photon. (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photon. 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, Nat. Photon. 1, 463 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Other (3)

R. P. Scott, N. K. Fontaine, J. P. Heritage, B. H. Kolner, and S. J. B. Yaoo, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper OWJ3.
[PubMed]

E. Hamidi, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Tunable programmable microwave photonic filters based on an optical frequency comb,” submitted to the joint special issue of IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Techn./J. Lightwave Technol. on microwave photonics.

A. M. Weiner, Ultrafast Optics (Wiley, 2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental scheme for flattening frequency combs generated by phase modulation using the cascaded intensity modulator (IM) and phase modulator (PM): PS, RF phase shifter. (b) Simulated output spectrum for this scheme. (c) Time domain plot showing the temporal phase applied by the PM (red solid curve) to the outputs after one IM (blue solid curve) and two IMs (black dashed curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental scheme for comb generation with high spectral flatness: VA, variable attenuator; PS, RF phase shifters (in our actual experiment, we use two PMs in series to generate a greater number of lines). (b) Simulated output spectrum in this case. (c), (d) Output spectra of the experimentally generated comb in linear and log scale showing 38 comb lines within a 1 dB variation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b) Simulated spectral phase and the quadratic fit to it for the case of phase modulation with tailored RF waveform (a) and a sinusoid (b). (c), (d) Short- and long- aperture time domain intensity autocorrelations of the output pulse [(measured, blue solid curve) obtained after comb propagation through 850 m of SMF] superimposed with the autocorrelation calculated taking the spectra [Fig. 2c] and assuming a flat spectral phase. A very good agreement is seen between the two.

Equations (2)

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cos ( ω rf t ) = 1 ( ω rf t ) 2 2 ! + ( ω rf t ) 4 4 ! ,
cos ( ω rf t ) 1 16 cos ( 2 ω rf t ) = 15 16 0.75 ( ω rf t ) 2 2 ! + 0 + .

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