Abstract

Reduction of reflection is of great importance in optical spectroscopy to reduce interference and increase throughput. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional inverted photonic grating device design using only one material—silicon. Enhanced transmission compared to planar silicon wafers is observed from 0.2THz to over 7.3THz for a device with a 15µm period, which covers most of the terahertz band, and its relative 3dB bandwidth (δf/fc) is a noteworthy 116.3%. Moreover, the device is polarization independent and can perform up to a large incident angle.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

C. Kadlec, F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, K. Blary, and P. Mounaix, Opt. Lett. 33, 2275 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

J. A. Dobrowolski, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Hosako, Appl. Opt. 44, 3769 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

C. R. Englert, M. Birk, and H. Maurer, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1997 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

C. R. Englert, M. Birk, and H. Maurer, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1997 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blary, K.

Bruckner, C.

Chang, A. S. P.

Chang, H.

Chang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. W.

Y. W. Chen, P. Y. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darmo, J.

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Drew, H. D.

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Englert, C. R.

C. R. Englert, M. Birk, and H. Maurer, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1997 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Han, P. Y.

Y. W. Chen, P. Y. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, I.-C.

Hosako, I.

Hsu, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ji, M.

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, K.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, C.

Kadlec, F.

Karpowicz, N.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kasebier, T.

Kern, A.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.

Kroll, J.

Kuroo, S.

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

Kuzel, P.

Lee, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.

Liu, T.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lo, H.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maurer, H.

C. R. Englert, M. Birk, and H. Maurer, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1997 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mcknight, S. W.

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Moorjani, K.

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Mounaix, P.

Muro, K.

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

Musante, C.

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

Notni, G.

Pan, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C.

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, D.

Pradarutti, B.

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riehemann, S.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

Sasho, H.

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

Schallenberg, U. B.

Schubert, E. F.

Shiraishi, K.

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

Steinkopf, R.

Stenzel, O.

Stewart, K. P.

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

Thoman, A.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

Unterrainer, K.

Waldman, J.

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

Walther, M.

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yngvesson, S.

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoda, H.

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

Zhang, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

I.-C. Ho, X. Guo, and X.-C. Zhang, Opt. Express 18, 2872(2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. W. Chen, P. Y. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. W. Chen, P. Y. Han, and X.-C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. (1)

A. J. Gatesman, J. Waldman, M. Ji, C. Musante, and S. Yngvesson, IEEE Microwave Guided Wave Lett. 10, 264(2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. R. Englert, M. Birk, and H. Maurer, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 37, 1997 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (1)

S. W. Mcknight, K. P. Stewart, H. D. Drew, and K. Moorjani, Infrared Phys. 27, 327 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotech. (1)

Y. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. Jen, C. Peng, T. Liu, Y. Hsu, C. Pan, H. Lo, C. Hsu, Y. Chang, C. Lee, K. Chen, and L. Chen, Nature Nanotech. 2, 770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Thoman, A. Kern, H. Helm, and M. Walther, Phys. Rev. B 77, 195405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. A. Dobrowolski, Proc. SPIE 5963, 596303 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Kuroo, K. Shiraishi, H. Sasho, H. Yoda, and K. Muro, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CThD7.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Simulated reflectance spectra of three-layer, AR, photonic gratings with total thicknesses of 20, 28, and 36 µm , plotted in red (top left), blue (middle left), and black curves, respectively. (b) Design parameters of three-layer, inverted, photonic gratings with periods of 20 and 15 µm , respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic and scanning electron microscope images of a 20-μm-thick device with 20-μm-thick structure period in (b) a top view and (c) a cross-section view. The device has three layers of air columns etched into a silicon substrate, which form the inverted photonic gratings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflected THz time-domain waveforms of silicon reference (black curve), 20 µm period device (blue curve), and 15 µm period device (red curve). (b) Reflectance spectra of 20 µm period device (blue curve) and 15 µm period device (red curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmitted THz time-domain waveforms through silicon reference (black curve), 20 µm period device (blue curve), and 15 µm period device (red curve). (b) THz relative transmission spectra of 20 µm period device (lowest, blue curve), 15 µm period device (highest, red curve), and simulated results (corresponding dashed lines).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Relative transmission at center frequency ( 3.7 THz ) of the 15 µm period device is plotted against the azimuthal angle as it increases from 0 ° to 180 ° in 22.5 ° steps. (b) Relative transmission at center frequency of the 15 µm period device is plotted against incident angle from 0 ° to 50 ° in 10 ° steps.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = n silicon 2 · a n silicon 2 · a + 1 a + n silicon 2 · ( 1 a ) ,
λ = Λ · n silicon ,

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