Abstract

Asymmetric directional coupling between a hybrid plasmonic waveguide with subwavelength field confinement and a conventional dielectric waveguide is investigated. The proposed hybrid coupler features short coupling length, high coupling efficiency, high extinction ratio, and low insertion loss; it can also be integrated into a silicon-based platform. This coupler can be potentially adopted for signal routing between plasmonic waveguides and dielectric waveguides in photonic integrated circuits. Furthermore, it can be exploited to efficiently excite hybrid plasmonic modes with conventional dielectric modes.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, Opt. Lett. 35, 502 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, Opt. Lett. 35, 649 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, Opt. Lett. 31, 3288(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christie, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

2010 (4)

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Han, A. Y. Elezzabi, and V. Van, Opt. Lett. 35, 502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yang, R. A. Wahsheh, Z. Lu, and M. A. G. Abushagur, Opt. Lett. 35, 649 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai and S. He, Opt. Express 17, 16646 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christie, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Abushagur, M. A. G.

Agio, M.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbel, D.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, X. W.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christie, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christie, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Fan, S.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

He, S.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christie, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Love, J. D.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Lu, Z.

Orenstein, M.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitz, J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

van Loon, R. V. A.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Wahsheh, R. A.

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

X. W. Chen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, Nano Lett. 9, 3756(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, Nat. Mater. 9, 21 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Nat. Photon. 4, 83 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, Nat. Photon. 2, 496 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christie, Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the hybrid directional coupler. Except for d, the coupler dimensions are kept constant throughout the Letter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Five bound modes supported by the hybrid coupler at d = 250 nm : (a) quasi-TM-even mode ( n = 2.26 ); (b) quasi-TM-odd mode ( n = 2.16 ); (c) quasi-TE mode 1 ( n = 2.09 ); (d) quasi-TE mode 2 ( n = 1.53 ); (e) TEM mode ( n = 1.47 ). For the quasi-TM modes, the quasi-TE modes, and the TEM mode, the E y components, the E x components, and the | E | are depicted, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Output power from the two output arms versus the interaction length z at d = 250 nm when the field is fed from the dielectric arm. The output power is normalized to the input power.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Effective refractive index (n) and loss of the e mode and the o mode versus d. (b) Normalized coupling length ( L c / L 0 ) and coupling efficiency (η) at z = L c versus d. (c) ER and IL at z = L c versus d.

Equations (3)

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E ( x , y , z ) = j C d j E j ( x , y ) e i β j z + E r ( x , y , z ) ,
E d ( x , y , z ) = j C d j C j d e i β j z E j ( x , y ) + E r d ( x , y , z ) ,
E p ( x , y , z ) = j C d j C j p e i β j z E j ( x , y ) + E r p ( x , y , z ) ,

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