Abstract

We studied the loss compensation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) with InGaAsP quantum wells at telecom wavelength. The quantum wells are buried in the vicinity of a thin Au film. The propagation length of short-range SPPs increases drastically with the gain coefficient of quantum wells, generated by a forward bias. The elongation of SPP propagation is experimentally observed via long-range SPPs, which strongly couple with the short-range SPPs. This study paves a way for electrically manipulated amplification of SPPs in plasmonic circuits.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009 (2)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Wang, S. D. Russell, and R. L. Shimabukuro, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Micallef and B. L. Weiss, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 669 (1991).

1985 (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5863 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5863 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burke, J. J.

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

des Frances, G. C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finot, C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, D. G.

Kitson, S. C.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasavin, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melosh, N. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Micallef, J.

J. Micallef and B. L. Weiss, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 669 (1991).

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginova, N.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pala, R. A.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Podolskiy, V. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritzo, B. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, S. D.

Y. Wang, S. D. Russell, and R. L. Shimabukuro, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimabukuro, R. L.

Y. Wang, S. D. Russell, and R. L. Shimabukuro, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K. T.

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stegeman, G. I.

Sun, C.

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, S. D. Russell, and R. L. Shimabukuro, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, B. L.

J. Micallef and B. L. Weiss, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 669 (1991).

Wu, D. M.

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. J.

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and N. I. Zheludev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Wang, S. D. Russell, and R. L. Shimabukuro, J. Appl. Phys. 97, 023708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Adachi, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5863 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (3)

J. Grandidier, G. C. des Frances, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, Nano Lett. 9, 2935 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Pala, K. T. Shimizu, N. A. Melosh, and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 1506 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, Nano Lett. 9, 897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Micallef and B. L. Weiss, Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, 669 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. J. Zhang, D. M. Wu, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 76, 085318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Mayy, B. A. Ritzo, N. Noginova, and V. A. Podolskiy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 226806 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kitson, W. L. Barnes, and J. R. Sambles, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2670 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, and K. Leosson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186801 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of InGaAsP QW-controlled SPP waveguides. The SPPs are generated and out-coupled by gratings above a thin Au film. The electric current is applied to QWs in the proximity of the thin Au film with p-type and n-type electrodes (not shown here). (b) Calculated material gain at around 1.55 μm of three-layer InGaAsP QWs for different carrier densities n.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Propagation length of long-range SPPs versus the thickness of Au film. The semiconductor multilayer is inclusive of InGaAsP QWs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical properties of an SPP waveguide with 60-nm-thick Au film incorporated with InGaAsP QWs. (a) Propagation length of long-range (short-range) SPPs decreases (increases) with increasing gain coefficient of QWs. (b) Field distributions associated with long-range and short-range SPPs show little change with gain coefficient (g). | H y | represents the absolute value of the transverse magnetic field, which is normalized to that at the surface of InP substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal intensities measured from out-coupling gratings as a function of forward voltage applied to InGaAsP QWs. The intensities are normalized to those in the absence of voltage. The measured current–voltage curve is given for comparison.

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