Abstract

Optofluidic lasers are of particular interest for lab-on-a-chip-type devices, with broad spectral tunability, convenient microfluidic integration, and a small footprint. Optofluidic ring resonator (OFRR) lasers are advantageous in terms of size but typically generate nondirectional emission that is of minimal practical use. We introduce two unique geometries for soft-lithography-based OFRR lasers—side-coupled rings and spiral rings—both of which can be produced in polydimethyl siloxane substrates with contact molding. These rings utilize evanescent and direct butt-coupling, respectively, to effectively couple the OFRR laser emission into microfluidic channels. A laser threshold of a few to tens of μJ/mm2 is achieved.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, D. J. Howard, J. A. Viator, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 10248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

S. Lacey, I. M. White, Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, J. M. Cupps, P. Zhang, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 15523 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (4)

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Balslev and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 13, 344 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, Opt. Lett. 30, 1273 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Helbo, A. Kristensen, and A. Menon, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Ahmad, I.

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

Bawendi, M. G.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belotti, M.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Lett. 9, 499 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Conroy, R. S.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cupps, J. M.

Dallas, T.

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Datta, A.

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emery, T.

Fan, X.

Fernandes, G. E.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galas, J. C.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grant, S. A.

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helbo, B.

B. Helbo, A. Kristensen, and A. Menon, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, M.

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoppmann, E.

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

Howard, D. J.

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, D. J. Howard, J. A. Viator, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 10248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korampally, V.

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kou, Q.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

S. Balslev and A. Kristensen, Opt. Express 13, 344 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Helbo, A. Kristensen, and A. Menon, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, S.

Li, H.

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2007), pp. 70–71.
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Liu, L.

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

Luo, X.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Manor, R.

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Mayers, B. T.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Memisevic, J.

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menon, A.

B. Helbo, A. Kristensen, and A. Menon, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nocera, D. G.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Poon, A. W.

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Psaltis, D.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, Z. Y. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 14, 696 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2007), pp. 70–71.
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, Z. Y. Zhang, T. Emery, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, Opt. Express 14, 696 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2007), pp. 70–71.
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, M.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

Snee, P. T.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Q.

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Suter, J. D.

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, D. J. Howard, J. A. Viator, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 16, 10248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torres, J.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tzeng, H.-M.

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vezenov, D. V.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viator, J. A.

Wall, K. F.

White, I. M.

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacey, I. M. White, Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, J. M. Cupps, P. Zhang, and X. Fan, Opt. Express 15, 15523 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Z.

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2007), pp. 70–71.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

Zhu, H.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Chen, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, D. Psaltis, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 051109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, and X. Fan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Jiang, Q. Song, L. Xu, J. Fu, and L. Tong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 233501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, H. Li, L. Liu, and L. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 081105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

R. Manor, A. Datta, I. Ahmad, M. Holtz, S. Gangopadhyay, and T. Dallas, IEEE Sens. J. 3, 687 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. V. Vezenov, B. T. Mayers, R. S. Conroy, G. M. Whitesides, P. T. Snee, Y. Chan, D. G. Nocera, and M. G. Bawendi, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 127, 8952 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

B. Helbo, A. Kristensen, and A. Menon, J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, 307 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, Nat. Photon. 1, 106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

A. W. Poon, X. Luo, H. Chen, G. E. Fernandes, and R. K. Chang, Opt. Photonics News 19, 36 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. D. Suter, D. J. Howard, E. Hoppmann, I. M. White, and X. Fan, Proc. SPIE 7579, 75790Y (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Memisevic, V. Korampally, S. Gangopadhyay, and S. A. Grant, Sens. Actuators B 141, 227 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meeting (IEEE, 2007), pp. 70–71.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic and corresponding image of a single side-coupled OFRR laser, (b) two side-coupled OFRR lasers, and (c) a spiral OFRR. All the ring resonators are filled with dye in TEG, whereas the waveguides are filled only with TEG. The magnified region in (a) shows the 2 μm PDMS gap separating the OFRR and the waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Demonstration of outcoupling of the OFRR laser emission into a TEG-filled liquid waveguide. (a) Photograph of the OFRR and the waveguide during laser operation. Inset illustrates the experimental setup. (b) Alignment schematic of a collection fiber at the end of the waveguide. (c) Spectra with the collection fiber in and out of alignment when pumping energy is 8.75 μJ / mm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Concomitant lasing emission spectra from the waveguide for the dual-ring configuration with (a) 2 mM R6G and (b) 2 mM LDS 722 in each ring. Both rings are simultaneously pumped. The spectra recorded are vertically shifted for clarity. (c) and (d) are the corresponding laser emission intensities [at the wavelength marked by the black vertical line in (a) and (b)] as a function of the pump energy density. The lasing thresholds are 3.7 and 4 μJ / mm 2 for R6G and LDS 722, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of the spiral OFRR and the waveguide during laser operation. Inset shows the PDMS slab and pump beam orientation. (b) The corresponding laser emission spectra from the waveguide. Curves are vertically shifted for clarity. Inset is the corresponding laser emission intensity (at the wavelength marked by the black vertical line) as a function of the pump energy density. The estimated lasing threshold is 26 μJ / mm 2 .

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